Monday, July 25, 2011

Hot off the presses! Aug 01 Nat Rev Immunol

The Aug 01 issue of the Nat Rev Immunol is now up on Pubget (About Nat Rev Immunol): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):497 (2011)
  • Innate immunity: Neutrophil U-turn fans the flames | PDF (356 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):498 (2011)
    During an inflammatory response, circulating neutrophils must cross the blood vessel endothelium in a luminal-to-abluminal direction to gain access to injured tissues. A recent study in Nature Immunology now shows that transendothelial migration does not always proceed down a one-way street — neutrophils can undergo 'reverse transendothelial migration' and potentially spread the inflammatory response to other tissues.
  • Immunotherapy: Pieces of the IVIG anti-inflammatory response | PDF (168 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):499 (2011)
    High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used for the treatment of autoantibody-mediated autoimmune diseases, but the molecular mechanism behind its anti-inflammatory effect was largely unknown. Previous studies have shown that sialylated Fc (sFc) fragments of IVIG (the active component of IVIG) bind to DC-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) on myeloid cells, thereby suppressing inflammation.
  • Cell death and immunity | Innate immunity | Viral immunity | PDF (86 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):499 (2011)
    Perforin pores in the endosomal membrane trigger the release of endocytosed granzyme B into the cytosol of target cells Thiery, al. Nature Immunol.19 Jun 2011 (doi:10.1038/ni.2050)
  • Tolerance: Both natural and induced TReg talents needed | PDF (318 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):500 (2011)
    Natural CD4+ regulatory T (TReg) cells arise in the thymus following ligation of high-affinity T cell receptors (TCRs), whereas induced TReg cells are generated in the periphery following CD4+ T cell activation in the presence of immunosuppressive cytokines or other environmental factors. Both TReg cell populations can inhibit the proliferation of T cells and suppress autoimmune responses.
  • Asthma: The secret face of H. pylori | PDF (314 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):500 (2011)
    It has been proposed that the increasing incidence of asthma in developed countries is due to the lack of early exposure to microbial antigens, which may contribute to the maturation of the airway immune system. Now, Arnold et al.Helicobacter pylori increases the number of CD4+ regulatory T (TReg) cells in the airways and thereby prevents the development of asthma.
  • In the news | PDF (72 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):500 (2011)
    If you have ever suffered from sunburn, you know that it hurts. Now, researchers at King's College London, UK, have discovered that CXC-chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) mediates sensitivity to ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced pain and that blocking this chemokine has an analgesic effect (Sci. Transl. Med.
  • B cells: The B boyz of sepsis | PDF (203 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):501 (2011)
    Activation of innate immune cells is the first step of the inflammatory response to invading pathogens, with adaptive immune cells classically considered as bystanders during this acute phase. However, recent studies have shown that T cells provide important feedback signals to the innate immune system during acute inflammatory responses to viral infection.
  • Innate immunity: SHP regulates TLR signalling | PDF (208 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):502 (2011)
    Several negative regulatory mechanisms that control Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling have been described. Reporting in Nature Immunology, Jo and colleagues now add the orphan nuclear receptor SHP (small heterodimer partner; also known as NR0B2) to the list of intrinsic negative regulators of TLR-dependent inflammatory responses.
  • Immune regulation: Lysosomes at the heart of inflammation | PDF (123 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):502 (2011)
    Lysosomes are ubiquitous intracellular organelles that are best known to immunologists for their degradative roles in antigen presentation and pathogen elimination. A recent study in Science Signalling has described a new immune function for lysosomes, showing that they potentiate inflammatory responses by inhibiting the immunosuppressive transcriptional activities of the glucocorticoid receptor.
  • T cells: A metabolic sHIFt to turn 17 | PDF (284 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):503 (2011)
    Naive T cells are known to upregulate glycolysis when they differentiate into effector T cells, and they subsequently rely on this pathway to produce ATP. By contrast, recent findings have indicated that the generation of induced regulatory T (TReg) cells does not involve this metabolic switch.
  • Antiviral immunity: Rapid response team | PDF (184 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):504 (2011)
    The rapid production of type I interferons (IFNs) in response to virus infection is a crucial part of the 'emergency' response provided by the innate immune system. Yong-Jun Liu and colleagues have discovered a new team of proteins that recognizes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the cytoplasm.
  • Innate immunity | Immunodeficiency | Parasite immunity | PDF (95 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):504 (2011)
    Direct ubiquitination of pattern recognition receptor FLS2 attenuates plant innate immunity Lu, al. Science 332, 1439–1442 (2011)
  • Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous infections
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):505 (2011)
    Complications arising from cutaneous and soft tissue infections with Staphylococcus aureus are a major clinical problem owing to the high incidence of these infections and the widespread emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. If prophylactic vaccines or immunotherapy for certain patient populations are to be developed as an alternative to antibiotics, it will be essential to better understand the immune mechanisms that provide protection against S. aureus skin infections. Recent discoveries have identified a key role for interleukin-1 (IL-1)- and IL-17-mediated immune responses in promoting neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection in the skin, a process that is required for host defence and bacterial clearance. This Review describes these new insights and discusses their potential impact on immune-based therapies and vaccination strategies.
  • Neutrophils in the activation and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):519 (2011)
    Neutrophils have long been viewed as the final effector cells of an acute inflammatory response, with a primary role in the clearance of extracellular pathogens. However, more recent evidence has extended the functions of these cells. The newly discovered repertoire of effector molecules in the neutrophil armamentarium includes a broad array of cytokines, extracellular traps and effector molecules of the humoral arm of the innate immune system. In addition, neutrophils are involved in the activation, regulation and effector functions of innate and adaptive immune cells. Accordingly, neutrophils have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of a broad range of diseases, including infections caused by intracellular pathogens, autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and cancer.
  • Immunity to dengue virus: a tale of original antigenic sin and tropical cytokine storms
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):532 (2011)
    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and incidence. The existence of four viral serotypes and the association of prior dengue virus infection with an increased risk for more severe disease have presented significant obstacles to vaccine development. An increased understanding of the adaptive immune response to natural dengue virus infection and candidate dengue vaccines has helped to define the specific antibody and T cell responses that are associated with either protective or pathological immunity during dengue infection. Further characterization of immunological correlates of disease outcome and the validation of these findings in vaccine trials will be invaluable for developing effective dengue vaccines.
  • Post-thymic maturation: young T cells assert their individuality
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):544 (2011)
    T cell maturation was once thought to occur entirely within the thymus. Now, evidence is mounting that the youngest peripheral T cells in both mice and humans comprise a distinct population from their more mature, yet still naive, counterparts. These cells, termed recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), undergo a process of post-thymic maturation that can be monitored at the levels of cell phenotype and immune function. Understanding this final maturation step in the process of generating useful and safe T cells is of clinical relevance, given that RTEs are over-represented in neonates and in adults recovering from lymphopenia. Post-thymic maturation may function to ensure T cell fitness and self tolerance.
  • Interrogating the repertoire: broadening the scope of peptide–MHC multimer analysis
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):551 (2011)
    Labelling antigen-specific T cells with peptide–MHC multimers has provided an invaluable way to monitor T cell-mediated immune responses. A number of recent developments in this technology have made these multimers much easier to make and use in large numbers. Furthermore, enrichment techniques have provided a greatly increased sensitivity that allows the analysis of the naive T cell repertoire directly. Thus, we can expect a flood of new information to emerge in the coming years.
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: one-trick ponies or workhorses of the immune system?
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):558 (2011)
    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were first described as interferon-producing cells and, for many years, their overlapping characteristics with both lymphocytes and classical dendritic cells (cDCs) created confusion over their exact ontogeny. In this Viewpoint article, Nature Reviews Immunology asks five leaders in the field to discuss their thoughts on the development and functions of pDCs — do these cells serve mainly as a major source of type I interferons or do they also make other important contributions to immune responses?
  • Correspondence: Heat shock proteins are no DAMPs, rather 'DAMPERs'
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):565 (2011)
    Originally, the immune system was seen as a system that primarily combats infection. But, as discussed in the recent Review article by Grace Chen and Gabriel Nuñez (Sterile inflammation: sensing and reacting to damage.
  • TH17 cells in tumour immunity and immunotherapy
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(8):565 (2011)
    In the original version of this article, in the section under the subheading "IL-17 and TH17 cells" on page 252, the sentence that began "Furthermore, although IL-17 deficiency leads to increased numbers of IFNγ-producing NK cells in the tumour-draining lymph nodes" was incorrect. This sentence should instead begin "Furthermore, although IL-17 deficiency leads to decreased numbers of IFNγ-producing NK cells in the tumour-draining lymph nodes". The authors apologize for this error.

No comments: