Saturday, June 4, 2011

Hot off the presses! May 27 CEL

The May 27 issue of the CEL is now up on Pubget (About CEL): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • In This Issue
    - CEL 145(5):637, 639 (2011)
    Breathing New Life into the Journal Curious about the cover? In this issue, Cell starts experimenting with two-dimensional "Quick Response" (QR) barcodes to connect the PDF and print versions of articles with multimedia online. Simply scan the codes with the camera on your smartphone or tablet and watch what happens. You'll uncover animated figures, interviews, videos, and more. For the paper by Semenza and colleagues (pp. 732–744), you can even listen to the author personally walk you through each figure as you read the printed PDF. There are 17 treasures hidden throughout the issue. Can you find them all? To use the two-dimensional barcodes, download a free barcode reader app, such as i-nigma for the iPhone and Android or Beetagg for the Blackberry. Then sit back, browse the issue, and snap a few codes. After you've tried them, send us an e-mail and let us know what you think. We are eager for your feedback (
  • Parasites
    - CEL 145(5):641, 643 (2011)
    Despite their large size, protozoan parasites are particularly adept at avoiding the unwanted attention of their hosts. This remarkable ability highlights the need for equally clever strategies to prevent and treat infection. With parasitic diseases such as malaria and sleeping sickness affecting many millions in the developing world, recent research in genetics and cell biology provides us with a chance to fight back. In this issue's Select, the spotlight falls on three parasitic pathogens: Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania.
  • Taking Charge: Feeding Malaria via Anion Channels
    - CEL 145(5):645-647 (2011)
    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum increases red blood cell membrane permeability during infection to allow for import of nutrients and other solutes. Nguitragool et al. (2011) have now identified parasite-encoded CLAG3 proteins as key components of the import channel located on the erythrocyte membrane.
  • PK-M2 Makes Cells Sweeter on HIF1
    - CEL 145(5):647-649 (2011)
    The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) facilitates the induction of enzymes necessary for anaerobic glycolysis. Luo et al. (2011) now identify pyruvate kinase (PK)-M2 as an intriguing new interacting partner for HIF1, revealing a potential mechanism for the Warburg effect, an elevation in aerobic glycolytic metabolism frequently observed in cancer.
  • Vertebrate Segmentation: From Cyclic Gene Networks to Scoliosis
    - CEL 145(5):650-663 (2011)
    One of the most striking features of the human vertebral column is its periodic organization along the anterior-posterior axis. This pattern is established when segments of vertebrates, called somites, bud off at a defined pace from the anterior tip of the embryo's presomitic mesoderm (PSM). To trigger this rhythmic production of somites, three major signaling pathways—Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)—integrate into a molecular network that generates a traveling wave of gene expression along the embryonic axis, called the "segmentation clock." Recent systems approaches have begun identifying specific signaling circuits within the network that set the pace of the oscillations, synchronize gene expression cycles in neighboring cells, and contribute to the robustness and bilateral symmetry of somite formation. These findings establish a new model for vertebrate segmentation and provide a conceptual framework to explain human diseases of th! e spine, such as congenital scoliosis.
  • Malaria Parasite clag3 Genes Determine Channel-Mediated Nutrient Uptake by Infected Red Blood Cells
    - CEL 145(5):665-677 (2011)
    Development of malaria parasites within vertebrate erythrocytes requires nutrient uptake at the host cell membrane. The plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC) mediates this transport and is an antimalarial target, but its molecular basis is unknown. We report a parasite gene family responsible for PSAC activity. We used high-throughput screening for nutrient uptake inhibitors to identify a compound highly specific for channels from the Dd2 line of the human pathogen P. falciparum. Inheritance of this compound's affinity in a Dd2 × HB3 genetic cross maps to a single parasite locus on chromosome 3. DNA transfection and in vitro selections indicate that PSAC-inhibitor interactions are encoded by two clag3 genes previously assumed to function in cytoadherence. These genes are conserved in plasmodia, exhibit expression switching, and encode an integral protein on the host membrane, as predicted by functional studies. This protein increases host cell permeability to divers! e solutes. PaperFlick To view the video inline, enable JavaScript on your browser. However, you can download and view the video by clicking on the icon below Download this Video (12179 K)
  • DNA Replication through G-Quadruplex Motifs Is Promoted by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 DNA Helicase
    - CEL 145(5):678-691 (2011)
    G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures are extremely stable four-stranded secondary structures held together by noncanonical G-G base pairs. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine the in vivo binding sites of the multifunctional Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 DNA helicase, a potent unwinder of G4 structures in vitro. G4 motifs were a significant subset of the high-confidence Pif1-binding sites. Replication slowed in the vicinity of these motifs, and they were prone to breakage in Pif1-deficient cells, whereas non-G4 Pif1-binding sites did not show this behavior. Introducing many copies of G4 motifs caused slow growth in replication-stressed Pif1-deficient cells, which was relieved by spontaneous mutations that eliminated their ability to form G4 structures, bind Pif1, slow DNA replication, and stimulate DNA breakage. These data suggest that G4 structures form in vivo and that they are resolved by Pif1 to prevent replication fork stalling and DNA break! age.
  • Recognition of a Mononucleosomal Histone Modification Pattern by BPTF via Multivalent Interactions
    - CEL 145(5):692-706 (2011)
    Little is known about how combinations of histone marks are interpreted at the level of nucleosomes. The second PHD finger of human BPTF is known to specifically recognize histone H3 when methylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me2/3). Here, we examine how additional heterotypic modifications influence BPTF binding. Using peptide surrogates, three acetyllysine ligands are indentified for a PHD-adjacent bromodomain in BPTF via systematic screening and biophysical characterization. Although the bromodomain displays limited discrimination among the three possible acetyllysines at the peptide level, marked selectivity is observed for only one of these sites, H4K16ac, in combination with H3K4me3 at the mononucleosome level. In support, these two histone marks constitute a unique trans-histone modification pattern that unambiguously resides within a single nucleosomal unit in human cells, and this module colocalizes with these marks in the genome. Together, our data call attention to nu! cleosomal patterning of covalent marks in dictating critical chromatin associations.
  • Maternal Epigenetic Pathways Control Parental Contributions to Arabidopsis Early Embryogenesis
    - CEL 145(5):707-719 (2011)
    Defining the contributions and interactions of paternal and maternal genomes during embryo development is critical to understand the fundamental processes involved in hybrid vigor, hybrid sterility, and reproductive isolation. To determine the parental contributions and their regulation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis, we combined deep-sequencing-based RNA profiling and genetic analyses. At the 2–4 cell stage there is a strong, genome-wide dominance of maternal transcripts, although transcripts are contributed by both parental genomes. At the globular stage the relative paternal contribution is higher, largely due to a gradual activation of the paternal genome. We identified two antagonistic maternal pathways that control these parental contributions. Paternal alleles are initially downregulated by the chromatin siRNA pathway, linked to DNA and histone methylation, whereas transcriptional activation requires maternal activity of the histone chaperone complex CAF1. O! ur results define maternal epigenetic pathways controlling the parental contributions in plant embryos, which are distinct from those regulating genomic imprinting.
  • An Intercellular Heme-Trafficking Protein Delivers Maternal Heme to the Embryo during Development in C. elegans
    - CEL 145(5):720-731 (2011)
    Extracellular free heme can intercalate into membranes and promote damage to cellular macromolecules. Thus it is likely that specific intercellular pathways exist for the directed transport, trafficking, and delivery of heme to cellular destinations, although none have been found to date. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans HRG-3 is required for the delivery of maternal heme to developing embryos. HRG-3 binds heme and is exclusively secreted by maternal intestinal cells into the interstitial fluid for transport of heme to extraintestinal cells, including oocytes. HRG-3 deficiency results either in death during embryogenesis or in developmental arrest immediately post-hatching—phenotypes that are fully suppressed by maternal but not zygotic hrg-3 expression. Our results establish a role for HRG-3 as an intercellular heme-trafficking protein.
  • Pyruvate Kinase M2 Is a PHD3-Stimulated Coactivator for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
    - CEL 145(5):732-744 (2011)
    The pyruvate kinase isoforms PKM1 and PKM2 are alternatively spliced products of the PKM2 gene. PKM2, but not PKM1, alters glucose metabolism in cancer cells and contributes to tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not explained by its known biochemical activity. We show that PKM2 gene transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). PKM2 interacts directly with the HIF-1α subunit and promotes transactivation of HIF-1 target genes by enhancing HIF-1 binding and p300 recruitment to hypoxia response elements, whereas PKM1 fails to regulate HIF-1 activity. Interaction of PKM2 with prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD3) enhances PKM2 binding to HIF-1α and PKM2 coactivator function. Mass spectrometry and anti-hydroxyproline antibody assays demonstrate PKM2 hydroxylation on proline-403/408. PHD3 knockdown inhibits PKM2 coactivator function, reduces glucose uptake and lactate production, and increases O2 consumption in cancer cells. Thus, PKM2 participates in a positiv! e feedback loop that promotes HIF-1 transactivation and reprograms glucose metabolism in cancer cells.
  • NLRP6 Inflammasome Regulates Colonic Microbial Ecology and Risk for Colitis
    - CEL 145(5):745-757 (2011)
    Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that function as sensors of endogenous or exogenous damage-associated molecular patterns. Here, we show that deficiency of NLRP6 in mouse colonic epithelial cells results in reduced IL-18 levels and altered fecal microbiota characterized by expanded representation of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes (Prevotellaceae) and TM7. NLRP6 inflammasome-deficient mice were characterized by spontaneous intestinal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell recruitment, and exacerbation of chemical colitis induced by exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Cross-fostering and cohousing experiments revealed that the colitogenic activity of this microbiota is transferable to neonatal or adult wild-type mice, leading to exacerbation of DSS colitis via induction of the cytokine, CCL5. Antibiotic treatment and electron microscopy studies further supported the role of Prevotellaceae as a key representative of this microbiota-associated phenotype. Altogethe! r, perturbations in this inflammasome pathway, including NLRP6, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-18, may constitute a predisposing or initiating event in some cases of human IBD. PaperClip To listen to this audio, enable JavaScript on your browser. However, you can download and play the audio by clicking on the icon below Download this Audio (4691 K)
  • Enhanced Polyubiquitination of Shank3 and NMDA Receptor in a Mouse Model of Autism
    - CEL 145(5):758-772 (2011)
    We have created a mouse genetic model that mimics a human mutation of Shank3 that deletes the C terminus and is associated with autism. Expressed as a single copy [Shank3(+/ΔC) mice], Shank3ΔC protein interacts with the wild-type (WT) gene product and results in >90% reduction of Shank3 at synapses. This "gain-of-function" phenotype is linked to increased polyubiquitination of WT Shank3 and its redistribution into proteasomes. Similarly, the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor is reduced at synapses with increased polyubiquitination. Assays of postsynaptic density proteins, spine morphology, and synapse number are unchanged in Shank3(+/ΔC) mice, but the amplitude of NMDAR responses is reduced together with reduced NMDAR-dependent LTP and LTD. Reciprocally, mGluR-dependent LTD is markedly enhanced. Shank3(+/ΔC) mice show behavioral deficits suggestive of autism and reduced NMDA receptor function. These studies reveal a mechanism distinct from haploinsufficiency by ! which mutations of Shank3 can evoke an autism-like disorder.
  • Primate CpG Islands Are Maintained by Heterogeneous Evolutionary Regimes Involving Minimal Selection
    - CEL 145(5):773-786 (2011)
    Mammalian CpG islands are key epigenomic elements that were first characterized experimentally as genomic fractions with low levels of DNA methylation. Currently, CpG islands are defined based on their genomic sequences alone. Here, we develop evolutionary models to show that several distinct evolutionary processes generate and maintain CpG islands. One central evolutionary regime resulting in enriched CpG content is driven by low levels of DNA methylation and consequentially low rates of CpG deamination. Another major force forming CpG islands is biased gene conversion that stabilizes constitutively methylated CpG islands by balancing rapid deamination with CpG fixation. Importantly, evolutionary analysis and population genetics data suggest that selection for high CpG content is not a significant factor contributing to conservation of CpGs in differentially methylated regions. The heterogeneous, but not selective, origins of CpG islands have direct implications for t! he understanding of DNA methylation patterns in healthy and diseased cells.
  • Analysis of the Human Endogenous Coregulator Complexome
    - CEL 145(5):787-799 (2011)
    Elucidation of endogenous cellular protein-protein interactions and their networks is most desirable for biological studies. Here we report our study of endogenous human coregulator protein complex networks obtained from integrative mass spectrometry-based analysis of 3290 affinity purifications. By preserving weak protein interactions during complex isolation and utilizing high levels of reciprocity in the large dataset, we identified many unreported protein associations, such as a transcriptional network formed by ZMYND8, ZNF687, and ZNF592. Furthermore, our work revealed a tiered interplay within networks that share common proteins, providing a conceptual organization of a cellular proteome composed of minimal endogenous modules (MEMOs), complex isoforms (uniCOREs), and regulatory complex-complex interaction networks (CCIs). This resource will effectively fill a void in linking correlative genomic studies with an understanding of transcriptional regulatory protein f! unctions within the proteome for formulation and testing of future hypotheses.
  • SnapShot: The Segmentation Clock
    - CEL 145(5):800-800.e1 (2011)

No comments: