Latest Articles Include:
- Jürg Tschopp 1951–2011
- mol cell 42(5):551-552 (2011)
- Identifying the Trigger of c-IAPs: Structural and Functional Characterization of CARD-Mediated Modulation of Ubiquitin Ligase Activity
- mol cell 42(5):553-554 (2011)
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Lopez et al. (2011) examine the caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) of c-IAP1 to reveal an intriguing mechanism in which conformational changes of the CARD determine c-IAP1's ubiquitin ligase activity, with implications for regulation of cell proliferation and survival by the IAPs.
- GSK3 TIPping Off p53 to Unleash PUMA
- mol cell 42(5):555-556 (2011)
Knowledge about "life vs. death" decisions made by p53 after DNA damage is limited but critical to preventing side effects during therapeutic application and to improve anticancer activity. Here, Charvet et al. define a signaling network that explains the protective effects of cytokines on cells exposed to γ-radiation.
- ATIA: A Link between Inflammation and Hypoxia
- mol cell 42(5):557-558 (2011)
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Choksi et al. (2011) report the identification of an NF-κB-independent ATIA (anti-TNFα-induced apoptosis)-Thioredoxin 2 axis that inhibits TNFα- and hypoxia-induced apoptosis through elimination of excessive reactive oxygen species directly.
- A SirT'N Repression for Notch
- mol cell 42(5):559-560 (2011)
Mulligan et al. (2011) show here that the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 (H4K16; H1K26) deacetylase acts in concert with the LSD1 (H3K4) demethylase to repress Notch-induced transcription, thus coupling two distinct histone modifications at a key epigenetic switch for Notch target genes.
- The SirT3 Divining Rod Points to Oxidative Stress
- mol cell 42(5):561-568 (2011)
Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent deacetylases that counter aging and diseases of aging. Sirtuin research has focused on SirT1, which deacetylates transcription factors and cofactors in the nucleus. More recent findings highlight SirT3 as a mitochondrial sirtuin that regulates metabolism and oxidative stress. This review focuses on new data linking SirT3 to management of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, which may have profound implications for aging and late-onset diseases.
- CARD-Mediated Autoinhibition of cIAP1's E3 Ligase Activity Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Migration
- mol cell 42(5):569-583 (2011)
E3 ligases mediate the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to target proteins thereby enabling ubiquitin-dependent signaling. Unraveling how E3 ligases are regulated is important because miscontrolled ubiquitylation can lead to disease. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP) proteins are E3 ligases that modulate diverse biological processes such as cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Here, we have solved the structure of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of cIAP1 and identified that it is required for cIAP1 autoregulation. We demonstrate that the CARD inhibits activation of cIAP1's E3 activity by preventing RING dimerization, E2 binding, and E2 activation. Moreover, we show that the CARD is required to suppress cell proliferation and migration. Further, CARD-mediated autoregulation is also necessary to maximally suppress caspase-8-dependent apoptosis and vascular tree degeneration in vivo. Taken together, our data reveal mechanisms by which the E3 ligase acti! vity of cIAP1 is controlled, and how its deregulation impacts on cell proliferation, migration and cell survival.
- Phosphorylation of Tip60 by GSK-3 Determines the Induction of PUMA and Apoptosis by p53
- mol cell 42(5):584-596 (2011)
Activation of p53 by DNA damage results in either cell-cycle arrest, allowing DNA repair and cell survival, or induction of apoptosis. As these opposite outcomes are both mediated by p53 stabilization, additional mechanisms to determine this decision must exist. Here, we show that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is required for the p53-mediated induction of the proapoptotic BH3 only-protein PUMA, an essential mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 protected from cell death induced by DNA damage and promoted increased long-term cell survival. We demonstrate that GSK-3 phosphorylates serine 86 of the p53-acetyltransferase Tip60. A Tip60S86A mutant was less active to induce p53 K120 acetylation, histone 4 acetylation, and expression of PUMA. Our data suggest that GSK-3 mediated Tip60S86 phosphorylation provides a link between PI3K signaling and the choice for or against apoptosis induction by p53.
- A HIF-1 Target, ATIA, Protects Cells from Apoptosis by Modulating the Mitochondrial Thioredoxin, TRX2
- mol cell 42(5):597-609 (2011)
The regulation of apoptosis is critical for controlling tissue homeostasis and preventing tumor formation and growth. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation plays a key role in such regulation. Here, we describe a HIF-1 target, Vasn/ATIA (anti-TNFα-induced apoptosis), which protects cells against TNFα- and hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Through the generation of ATIA knockout mice, we show that ATIA protects cells from apoptosis through regulating the function of the mitochondrial antioxidant, thioredoxin-2, and ROS generation. ATIA is highly expressed in human glioblastoma, and ATIA knockdown in glioblastoma cells renders them sensitive to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Therefore, ATIA is not only a HIF-1 target that regulates mitochondrial redox pathways but also a potentially diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in human glioblastoma.
- Dynamics of Cdk1 Substrate Specificity during the Cell Cycle
- mol cell 42(5):610-623 (2011)
Cdk specificity is determined by the intrinsic selectivity of the active site and by substrate docking sites on the cyclin subunit. There is a long-standing debate about the relative importance of these factors in the timing of Cdk1 substrate phosphorylation. We analyzed major budding yeast cyclins (the G1/S-cyclin Cln2, S-cyclin Clb5, G2/M-cyclin Clb3, and M-cyclin Clb2) and found that the activity of Cdk1 toward the consensus motif increased gradually in the sequence Cln2-Clb5-Clb3-Clb2, in parallel with cell cycle progression. Further, we identified a docking element that compensates for the weak intrinsic specificity of Cln2 toward G1-specific targets. In addition, Cln2-Cdk1 showed distinct consensus site specificity, suggesting that cyclins do not merely activate Cdk1 but also modulate its active-site specificity. Finally, we identified several Cln2-, Clb3-, and Clb2-specific Cdk1 targets. We propose that robust timing and ordering of cell cycle events depend on g! radual changes in the substrate specificity of Cdk1.
- Switching Cdk2 On or Off with Small Molecules to Reveal Requirements in Human Cell Proliferation
- mol cell 42(5):624-636 (2011)
Multiple cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control eukaryotic cell division, but assigning specific functions to individual CDKs remains a challenge. During the mammalian cell cycle, Cdk2 forms active complexes before Cdk1, but lack of Cdk2 protein does not block cell-cycle progression. To detect requirements and define functions for Cdk2 activity in human cells when normal expression levels are preserved, and nonphysiologic compensation by other CDKs is prevented, we replaced the wild-type kinase with a version sensitized to specific inhibition by bulky adenine analogs. The sensitizing mutation also impaired a noncatalytic function of Cdk2 in restricting assembly of cyclin A with Cdk1, but this defect could be corrected by both inhibitory and noninhibitory analogs. This allowed either chemical rescue or selective antagonism of Cdk2 activity in vivo, to uncover a requirement in cell proliferation, and nonredundant, rate-limiting roles in restriction point passage and S p! hase entry.
- The Catalytic Activity of Ubp6 Enhances Maturation of the Proteasomal Regulatory Particle
- mol cell 42(5):637-649 (2011)
The 26S proteasome is a 2.5 MDa macromolecular machine responsible for targeted protein degradation. Recently, four chaperones were identified that promote the assembly of the 19S regulatory particle (RP). Here, we probe the dynamic architecture of the proteasome by applying quantitative proteomics and mass spectrometry (MS) of intact complexes to provide a detailed characterization of how Ubp6 assists this assembly process. Our MS data demonstrate stoichiometric binding of chaperones and Ubp6 to the basal part of the RP. Genetic interactions of Ubp6 with Hsm3, but not with the other chaperones, indicate a functional overlay with Hsm3. Our biochemical data identified Ubp6 as an additional member of the Hsm3 module. Deletions of ubp6 with hsm3 perturb 26S proteasome assembly, which we attribute to an accumulation of ubiquitylated substrates on these assembly precursors. We therefore propose that Ubp6 facilitates proteasomal assembly by clearing ubiquitylated substrates ! from assembly precursors by its deubiquitylating activity.
- SH3BP1, an Exocyst-Associated RhoGAP, Inactivates Rac1 at the Front to Drive Cell Motility
- mol cell 42(5):650-661 (2011)
The coordination of the several pathways involved in cell motility is poorly understood. Here, we identify SH3BP1, belonging to the RhoGAP family, as a partner of the exocyst complex and establish a physical and functional link between two motility-driving pathways, the Ral/exocyst and Rac signaling pathways. We show that SH3BP1 localizes together with the exocyst to the leading edge of motile cells and that SH3BP1 regulates cell migration via its GAP activity upon Rac1. SH3BP1 loss of function induces abnormally high Rac1 activity at the front, as visualized by in vivo biosensors, and disorganized and instable protrusions, as revealed by cell morphodynamics analysis. Consistently, constitutively active Rac1 mimics the phenotype of SH3BP1 depletion: slow migration and aberrant cell morphodynamics. Our finding that SH3BP1 downregulates Rac1 at the motile-cell front indicates that Rac1 inactivation in this location, as well as its activation by GEF proteins, is a fundame! ntal requirement for cell motility.
- The Molecular Basis of ABA-Independent Inhibition of PP2Cs by a Subclass of PYL Proteins
- mol cell 42(5):662-672 (2011)
PYR1/PYL/RCAR proteins (PYLs) are confirmed abscisic acid (ABA) receptors, which inhibit protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) upon binding to ABA. Arabidopsis thaliana has 14 PYLs, yet their functional distinction remains unclear. Here, we report systematic biochemical characterization of PYLs. A subclass of PYLs, represented by PYL10, inhibited PP2C in the absence of any ligand. Crystal structures of PYL10, both in the free form and in the HAB1 (PP2C)-bound state, revealed the structural basis for its constitutive activity. Structural-guided biochemical analyses revealed that ABA-independent inhibition of PP2C requires the PYLs to exist in a monomeric state. In addition, the residues guarding the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket of these PYLs should be bulky and hydrophobic. Based on these principles, we were able to generate monomeric PYL2 variants that gained constitutive inhibitory effect on PP2Cs. These findings provide an important framework for understanding the c! omplex regulation of ABA signaling by PYL proteins.
- Reversible Inhibition of PSD-95 mRNA Translation by miR-125a, FMRP Phosphorylation, and mGluR Signaling
- mol cell 42(5):673-688 (2011)
The molecular mechanism for how RISC and microRNAs selectively and reversibly regulate mRNA translation in response to receptor signaling is unknown but could provide a means for temporal and spatial control of translation. Here we show that miR-125a targeting PSD-95 mRNA allows reversible inhibition of translation and regulation by gp1 mGluR signaling. Inhibition of miR-125a increased PSD-95 levels in dendrites and altered dendritic spine morphology. Bidirectional control of PSD-95 expression depends on miR-125a and FMRP phosphorylation status. miR-125a levels at synapses and its association with AGO2 are reduced in Fmr1 KO. FMRP phosphorylation promotes the formation of an AGO2-miR-125a inhibitory complex on PSD-95 mRNA, whereas mGluR signaling of translation requires FMRP dephosphorylation and release of AGO2 from the mRNA. These findings reveal a mechanism whereby FMRP phosphorylation provides a reversible switch for AGO2 and microRNA to selectively regulate mRNA t! ranslation at synapses in response to receptor activation.
- A SIRT1-LSD1 Corepressor Complex Regulates Notch Target Gene Expression and Development
- mol cell 42(5):689-699 (2011)
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by histone-modifying corepressor complexes is central to normal animal development. The NAD+-dependent deacetylase and gene repressor SIRT1 removes histone H4K16 acetylation marks and facilitates heterochromatin formation. However, the mechanistic contribution of SIRT1 to epigenetic regulation at euchromatic loci and whether it acts in concert with other chromatin-modifying activities to control developmental gene expression programs remain unclear. We describe here a SIRT1 corepressor complex containing the histone H3K4 demethylase LSD1/KDM1A and several other LSD1-associated proteins. SIRT1 and LSD1 interact directly and play conserved and concerted roles in H4K16 deacetylation and H3K4 demethylation to repress genes regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. Mutations in Drosophila SIRT1 and LSD1 orthologs result in similar developmental phenotypes and genetically interact with the Notch pathway in Drosophila. These findings o! ffer new insights into conserved mechanisms of epigenetic gene repression and regulation of development by SIRT1 in metazoans.
- MCM Proteins Are Negative Regulators of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
- mol cell 42(5):700-712 (2011)
MCM proteins are components of a DNA helicase that plays an essential role in DNA replication and cell proliferation. However, MCM proteins are present in excess relative to origins of replication, suggesting they may serve other functions. Decreased proliferation is a fundamental physiological response to hypoxia in many cell types, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been implicated in this process. Here, we demonstrate that multiple MCM proteins bind directly to the HIF-1α subunit and synergistically inhibit HIF-1 transcriptional activity via distinct O2-dependent mechanisms. MCM3 inhibits transactivation domain function, whereas MCM7 enhances HIF-1α ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. HIF-1 activity decreases when quiescent cells re-enter the cell cycle, and this effect is MCM dependent. Exposure to hypoxia leads to MCM2–7 downregulation in diverse cell types. These studies reveal a function of MCM proteins apart from their DNA helicase activity ! and establish a direct link between HIF-1 and the cell-cycle machinery.