Friday, June 24, 2011

Hot off the presses! Jul 01 Nat Rev Immunol

The Jul 01 issue of the Nat Rev Immunol is now up on Pubget (About Nat Rev Immunol): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):437 (2011)
  • Immune regulation: Macrophages join the FOXP3 suppressor gang | PDF (309 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):438 (2011)
    The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) has been used for several years to identify regulatory T cells (TReg cells). Now, a new study published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine shows that the expression of FOXP3 by immune cells is not restricted to TReg cells and that FOXP3+ macrophages have suppressive functions and promote tumour growth.
  • Mucosal immunology: Inflammasome shapes the microbiota | PDF (350 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):439 (2011)
    The microbiota has been shown to contribute to immune homeostasis in mucosal tissues. Different intestinal microbial profiles are associated with higher or lower susceptibilities to inflammatory diseases.
  • Mucosal immunology | Tolerance | Cell death | PDF (96 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):439 (2011)
    The Toll-like receptor 2 pathway establishes colonization by a commensal of the human microbiota Round, J. al. Science 332, 974–977 (2011)
  • Innate immunity: An inducible RNA sensor? IFITs the bill | PDF (216 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):440 (2011)
    The immune system uses various constitutively expressed pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect and respond to invading pathogens. A new study has identified an inducible class of proteins that promote antiviral immunity by sensing 5′-triphosphorylated RNA (PPP-RNA).
  • Tumour immunology: MDSCs come at a cost | PDF (216 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):440 (2011)
    Pregnancy is associated with general immune suppression. Interestingly, breast tumours that develop during or shortly after pregnancy are more aggressive.
  • Antiviral immunity: SAMHD1 — stopping HIV in its tracks | PDF (226 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):440 (2011)
    HIV-1 replicates poorly in human dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes and, to a lesser extent, macrophages, but the restriction factor that mediates this non-permissiveness to infection remains unknown. Writing in Nature, Laguette et al.
  • Tumour immunology | Vaccines | Technique | PDF (91 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):441 (2011)
    B regulatory cells and the tumor-promoting actions of TNF-α during squamous carcinogenesis Schioppa, al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA13 Jun 2011 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1100994108)
  • T cell activation: Silent movies | PDF (292 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):442 (2011)
    Although CD4+ T cells have been studied for over 35 years, there is still little known about their behaviour in situ during chronic infections. By visualizing CD4+ T cell mobility and effector functions in mycobacterial granulomas, Germain and colleagues now show that very few effector T cells undergo antigen-induced migrational arrest at sites of chronic infection and that the number of in situ cytokine-producing T cells is far lower than had been suggested by ex vivo studies.
  • Macrophages: Support from the locals | PDF (322 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):442 (2011)
    Inflammation that is induced by microorganisms is marked by the rapid recruitment of innate immune cells to the infected tissues. By contrast, a study published in Science now shows that helminth-induced tissue inflammation (which is associated with interleukin-4 (IL-4) production) is not associated with the recruitment of monocytes and macrophages, but depends on the proliferation of tissue-resident macrophages.
  • Asthma and allergy: Influenza virus and an innate form of asthma | PDF (271 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):443 (2011)
    In patients with asthma, many disease components — such as airway hyperreactivity (AHR) — are thought to be driven by allergen-specific T helper 2 (TH2) cells. Now, Dale Umetsu and colleagues have shown that influenza virus can promote AHR independently of the adaptive immune system, by inducing the activation of innate lymphoid cells.
  • Natural killer cells: NK cells get their VA-VAVoom | PDF (176 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):444 (2011)
    A natural killer (NK) cell responds to a potential target cell on the basis of a balance between the stimulation of activating and inhibitory receptors. However, it is not clear how and at what level these signalling inputs are integrated.
  • In the news | PDF (82 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):444 (2011)
    At the first pledging conference held by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) in London on 13 June 2011, donors pledged a total of $4.3 billion of new funds to help immunize 243 million more children in 72 countries by 2015.
  • The light and dark sides of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):445 (2011)
    The intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that reside within the epithelium of the intestine form one of the main branches of the immune system. As IELs are located at this critical interface between the core of the body and the outside environment, they must balance protective immunity with an ability to safeguard the integrity of the epithelial barrier: failure to do so would compromise homeostasis of the organism. In this Review, we address how the unique development and functions of intestinal IELs allow them to achieve this balance.
  • Expanding TRAF function: TRAF3 as a tri-faced immune regulator
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):457 (2011)
    Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor (TRAF) proteins are essential components of signalling pathways activated by TNFR or Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members. Acting alone or in combination, the seven known TRAFs control many biological processes, including cytokine production and cell survival. The function of one TRAF in particular, TRAF3, remained elusive for many years. Recent work has revealed that TRAF3 is a highly versatile regulator that positively controls type I interferon production, but negatively regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and alternative nuclear factor-κB signalling. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of TRAF3 in TNFR and TLR signalling pathways, and its role in disease.
  • Signal integration and crosstalk during thymocyte migration and emigration
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):469 (2011)
    The thymus produces self-tolerant functionally competent T cells. This process involves the import of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors that are then signalled to adopt the T cell fate. Expression of T cell-specific genes, including those encoding the T cell receptor (TCR), is followed by positive and negative selection and the eventual export of mature T cells. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the signals that direct progenitor cell trafficking to, within and out of the thymus. These advances are the subject of this Review, with a particular focus on the role of reciprocal cooperative and regulatory interactions between TCR- and chemokine receptor-mediated signalling.
  • Epigenetics of haematopoietic cell development
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):478 (2011)
    Cells of the immune system are generated through a developmental cascade that begins in haematopoietic stem cells. During this process, gene expression patterns are programmed in a series of stages that bring about the restriction of cell potential, ultimately leading to the formation of specialized innate immune cells and mature lymphocytes that express antigen receptors. These events involve the regulation of both gene expression and DNA recombination, mainly through the control of chromatin accessibility. In this Review, we describe the epigenetic changes that mediate this complex differentiation process and try to understand the logic of the programming mechanism.
  • The golden anniversary of the thymus
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(7):489 (2011)
    The immunological function of the thymus was first documented 50 years ago by using neonatally thymectomized mice, while studying its role in virus-induced leukaemia. Since then, an enormous wealth of reports has helped to define the importance of this primary lymphoid organ. In this article, I summarize the key advances that have led to our current knowledge of the functions of the thymus and its T cells in immunity.

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