Friday, March 4, 2011

Hot off the presses! Mar 11 LANCET

The Mar 11 issue of the LANCET is now up on Pubget (About LANCET): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • The benefits of recession
    - LANCET 377(9768):783 (2011)
  • Adolescent girls: taking centre stage
    - LANCET 377(9768):784 (2011)
  • Taking shared decision making more seriously
    - LANCET 377(9768):784 (2011)
  • Unravelling the role of denosumab in prostate cancer
    - LANCET 377(9768):785-786 (2011)
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome: where to PACE from here?
    - LANCET 377(9768):786-788 (2011)
  • Immunosuppression without calcineurin inhibition: by ZEUS
    - LANCET 377(9768):788-789 (2011)
  • Good governance in health care: the Karnataka experience
    - LANCET 377(9768):790-792 (2011)
  • Civil society in ASEAN: a healthy development?
    - LANCET 377(9768):792-793 (2011)
  • Mobilising the Americas for dietary salt reduction
    - LANCET 377(9768):793-795 (2011)
  • Surgery—call for papers
    - LANCET 377(9768):795 (2011)
  • Offline: The jasmine health revolution
    - LANCET 377(9768):796 (2011)
  • UK National Health Service reforms mobilise doctors
    - LANCET 377(9768):797-800 (2011)
  • Waging war on cancer
    - LANCET 377(9768):801 (2011)
  • Celebrating 65 years of the NSHD cohort
    - LANCET 377(9768):802 (2011)
  • Adrienne Germain: helping to shape policy for women's health
    - LANCET 377(9768):803 (2011)
  • The divided self, hidden values, and moral sensibility in medicine
    - LANCET 377(9768):804-805 (2011)
  • Arthur Schatzkin
    - LANCET 377(9768):806 (2011)
  • Access to research information in developing countries
    - LANCET 377(9768):807 (2011)
  • Measles eradication
    - LANCET 377(9768):807-808 (2011)
  • Measles eradication
    - LANCET 377(9768):808 (2011)
  • Measles eradication
    - LANCET 377(9768):809 (2011)
  • Measles eradication – Authors' reply
    - LANCET 377(9768):809-810 (2011)
  • Measuring the AMFm
    - LANCET 377(9768):810 (2011)
  • Measuring the AMFm
    - LANCET 377(9768):810 (2011)
  • Measuring the AMFm – Authors' reply
    - LANCET 377(9768):810-811 (2011)
  • Women in science and medicine
    - LANCET 377(9768):811 (2011)
  • Women in science and medicine
    - LANCET 377(9768):811-812 (2011)
  • Loneliness
    - LANCET 377(9768):812 (2011)
  • Loneliness
    - LANCET 377(9768):812 (2011)
  • Department of Error
    - LANCET 377(9768):812 (2011)
  • Department of Error
    - LANCET 377(9768):812 (2011)
  • Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study
    - LANCET 377(9768):813-822 (2011)
    Background Bone metastases are a major burden in men with advanced prostate cancer. We compared denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, with zoledronic acid for prevention of skeletal-related events in men with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer. Methods In this phase 3 study, men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and no previous exposure to intravenous bisphosphonate were enrolled from 342 centres in 39 countries. An interactive voice response system was used to assign patients (1:1 ratio), according to a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to receive 120 mg subcutaneous denosumab plus intravenous placebo, or 4 mg intravenous zoledronic acid plus subcutaneous placebo, every 4 weeks until the primary analysis cutoff date. Randomisation was stratified by previous skeletal-related event, prostate-specific antigen concentration, and chemotherapy for prostate cancer within 6 weeks before randomisation. Supplemental calcium and vitamin D were strongly recommended. Patients, study staff, and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was time to first on-study skeletal-related event (pathological fracture, radiation therapy, surgery to bone, or spinal cord compression), and was assessed ! for non-inferiority. The same outcome was further assessed for superiority as a secondary endpoint. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT00321620, and has been completed. Findings 1904 patients were randomised, of whom 950 assigned to denosumab and 951 assigned to receive zoledronic acid were eligible for the efficacy analysis. Median duration on study at primary analysis cutoff date was 12·2 months (IQR 5·9–18·5) for patients on denosumab and 11·2 months (IQR 5·6–17·4) for those on zoledronic acid. Median time to first on-study skeletal-related event was 20·7 months (95% CI 18·8–24·9) with denosumab compared with 17·1 months (15·0–19·4) with zoledronic acid (hazard ratio 0·82, 95% CI 0·71–0·95; p=0·0002 for non-inferiority; p=0·008 for superiority). Adverse events were recorded in 916 patients (97%) on denosumab and 918 patients (97%) on zoledronic acid, and serious adverse events were recorded in 594 patients (63%) on denosumab and 568 patients (60%) on zoledronic acid. More events of hypocalcaemia occurred in the denosumab group (121 [13%]) than in the zoledronic acid group (55 [6%]; p<0·0001). Osteonecrosis of the jaw o! ccurred infrequently (22 [2%] vs 12 [1%]; p=0·09). Interpretation Denosumab was better than zoledronic acid for prevention of skeletal-related events, and potentially represents a novel treatment option in men with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer. Funding Amgen.
  • Comparison of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise therapy, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): a randomised trial
    - LANCET 377(9768):823-836 (2011)
    Background Trial findings show cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) can be effective treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome, but patients' organisations have reported that these treatments can be harmful and favour pacing and specialist health care. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of all four treatments. Methods In our parallel-group randomised trial, patients meeting Oxford criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome were recruited from six secondary-care clinics in the UK and randomly allocated by computer-generated sequence to receive specialist medical care (SMC) alone or with adaptive pacing therapy (APT), CBT, or GET. Primary outcomes were fatigue (measured by Chalder fatigue questionnaire score) and physical function (measured by short form-36 subscale score) up to 52 weeks after randomisation, and safety was assessed primarily by recording all serious adverse events, including serious adverse reactions to trial treatments. Primary outcomes were rated by participants, who were necessarily unmasked to treatment assignment; the statistician was masked to treatment assignment for the analysis of primary outcomes. We used longitudinal regression models to compare SMC alone with other treatments, APT with CBT, and APT with GET. The final analysis included all participants for whom we ha! d data for primary outcomes. This trial is registered at, number ISRCTN54285094. Findings We recruited 641 eligible patients, of whom 160 were assigned to the APT group, 161 to the CBT group, 160 to the GET group, and 160 to the SMC-alone group. Compared with SMC alone, mean fatigue scores at 52 weeks were 3·4 (95% CI 1·8 to 5·0) points lower for CBT (p=0·0001) and 3·2 (1·7 to 4·8) points lower for GET (p=0·0003), but did not differ for APT (0·7 [−0·9 to 2·3] points lower; p=0·38). Compared with SMC alone, mean physical function scores were 7·1 (2·0 to 12·1) points higher for CBT (p=0·0068) and 9·4 (4·4 to 14·4) points higher for GET (p=0·0005), but did not differ for APT (3·4 [−1·6 to 8·4] points lower; p=0·18). Compared with APT, CBT and GET were associated with less fatigue (CBT p=0·0027; GET p=0·0059) and better physical function (CBT p=0·0002; GET p<0·0001). Subgroup analysis of 427 participants meeting international criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome and 329 participants meeting London criteria for myalgic encephalomyeliti! s yielded equivalent results. Serious adverse reactions were recorded in two (1%) of 159 participants in the APT group, three (2%) of 161 in the CBT group, two (1%) of 160 in the GET group, and two (1%) of 160 in the SMC-alone group. Interpretation CBT and GET can safely be added to SMC to moderately improve outcomes for chronic fatigue syndrome, but APT is not an effective addition. Funding UK Medical Research Council, Department of Health for England, Scottish Chief Scientist Office, Department for Work and Pensions.
  • Everolimus-based, calcineurin-inhibitor-free regimen in recipients of de-novo kidney transplants: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial
    - LANCET 377(9768):837-847 (2011)
    Background Non-nephrotoxic immunosuppressive strategies that allow reduction of calcineurin-inhibitor exposure without compromising safety or efficacy remain a goal in kidney transplantation. Immunosuppression based on the mammalian-target-of-rapamycin inhibitor everolimus was assessed as a strategy for elimination of calcineurin-inhibitor exposure and optimisation of renal-graft function while maintaining efficacy. Methods In the ZEUS multicentre, open-label study, 503 patients (aged 18–65 years) who had received de-novo kidney transplants were enrolled. After initial treatment with ciclosporin, based on trough concentrations, and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (1440 mg/day, orally), corticosteroids (≥5 mg/day prednisolone or equivalent, orally), and basiliximab induction (20 mg, intravenously, on day 0 [2 h before transplantation], and on day 4), 300 (60%) patients were randomly assigned at 4·5 months in a 1:1 ratio to undergo calcineurin-inhibitor elimination (everolimus-based regimen that was based on trough concentrations [6–10 ng/mL] and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium [1440 mg/day] with corticosteroids), or continue standard ciclosporin-based treatment. Randomisation was done by use of a central, validated system that automated the random assignment of treatment groups to randomisation numbers. The primary objective was to show better renal function (glomerular filtration! rate [GFR]; Nankivell formula) with the calcineurin-inhibitor-free everolimus regimen at 12 months after transplantation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT00154310. Findings 118 (76%) of 155 everolimus-treated patients and 117 (81%) of 145 ciclosporin-treated patients completed treatment with study drug up to 12 months after transplantation. At this timepoint, the everolimus regimen was associated with a significant improvement in GFR versus the ciclosporin regimen (71·8 mL/min per 1·73 m2vs 61·9 mL/min per 1·73 m2, respectively; mean difference 9·8 mL/min per 1·73 m2, 95% CI −12·2 to −7·5). Rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection were higher in the everolimus group than in the ciclosporin group after randomisation (15 [10%] of 154 vs five [3%] of 146; p=0·036), but similar for the full study period (23 [15%] vs 22 [15%]). Compared with the ciclosporin regimen, higher mean lipid concentrations, slightly increased urinary protein excretion, and lower haemoglobin concentrations were noted with the everolimus regimen; thrombocytopenia, aphthous stomatitis, and diarrhoea also occurred more often in the everolimus group. A higher incidenc! e of hyperuricaemia was noted with ciclosporin. Interpretation Early elimination of calcineurin inhibitor by use of everolimus-based immunosuppression improved renal function at 12 months while maintaining efficacy and safety, indicating that this strategy may facilitate improved long-term outcomes in selected patients. Funding Novartis Pharma.
  • Amelanotic choroidal melanoma
    - LANCET 377(9768):848 (2011)
  • Ebola haemorrhagic fever
    - LANCET 377(9768):849-862 (2011)
    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock.
  • Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage
    - LANCET 377(9768):863-873 (2011)
    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged—contributory arrangements and! tax-financed schemes—with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened.
  • Hidden harm
    - LANCET 377(9768):874 (2011)

No comments: