Thursday, March 31, 2011

Hot off the presses! Apr 01 Cell

The Apr 01 issue of the Cell is now up on Pubget (About Cell): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • In This Issue
    - cell 145(1):1, 3 (2011)
  • Genome Instability
    - cell 145(1):5, 7 (2011)
    Maintaining genomic stability in the face of replication and recombination requires a huge variety of different damage response proteins. A cell's ability to decide when and where to deploy this DNA repair kit is critical to prevent tumor development. This issue's Select highlights recent studies that help to explain how these difficult decisions are made and reveals that some surprising cellular locations impact genomic stability.
  • Directly Observing Therapy: A New View of Drug Tolerance in Tuberculosis
    - cell 145(1):13-14 (2011)
    Drug tolerance in bacteria is widely believed to be due to metabolic changes that accompany growth arrest. A study in this issue of Cell reveals a drug tolerance mechanism in replicating mycobacteria that is induced by residence in macrophages and depends on drug efflux.
  • Traveling Bax and Forth from Mitochondria to Control Apoptosis
    - cell 145(1):15-17 (2011)
    Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins on mitochondria inhibit prodeath proteins, such as Bax, which are found primarily in the cytosol. In this issue, Edlich et al., (2011) show that Bax and Bcl-xL interact on the mitochondrial surface and then retrotranslocate to the cytosol, effectively preventing Bax-induced permeabilization of mitochondria.
  • Hungry Flies Tune to Vinegar
    - cell 145(1):17-18 (2011)
    Many molecular signals that represent hunger and satiety in the body have been identified, but relatively little is known about how these factors alter the nervous system to change behavior. Root et al. (2011) report that hunger modulates the sensitivity of specific olfactory sensory neurons in Drosophila and facilitates odor-search behavior.
  • The Evolving War on Cancer
    - cell 145(1):19-24 (2011)
    Building on years of basic scientific discovery, recent advances in the fields of cancer genetics and medicinal chemistry are now converging to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. Starting with serendipitous observations in rare subsets of cancer, a paradigm shift in clinical research is poised to ensure that new molecular insights are rapidly applied to shape emerging cancer therapies. Could this mark a turning point in the "War on Cancer"?
  • Mapping Cancer Origins
    - cell 145(1):25-29 (2011)
    Cancer comprises a bewildering assortment of diseases that kill 7.5 million people each year. Poor understanding of cancer's diversity currently thwarts our goal of a cure for every patient, but recent integration of genomic and stem cell technologies promises a route through this impasse.
  • Genetic Interactions in Cancer Progression and Treatment
    - cell 145(1):30-38 (2011)
    As cancer cell genomes are unveiled at a breathtaking pace, the genetic principles at play in cancer are emerging in all their complexity, prompting the assessment of classical genetic interaction models. Here, we discuss the implications of these findings for cancer progression and heterogeneity and for the development of new therapeutic approaches.
  • Drug Tolerance in Replicating Mycobacteria Mediated by a Macrophage-Induced Efflux Mechanism
    - cell 145(1):39-53 (2011)
    Treatment of tuberculosis, a complex granulomatous disease, requires long-term multidrug therapy to overcome tolerance, an epigenetic drug resistance that is widely attributed to nonreplicating bacterial subpopulations. Here, we deploy Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae for in vivo characterization of antitubercular drug activity and tolerance. We describe the existence of multidrug-tolerant organisms that arise within days of infection, are enriched in the replicating intracellular population, and are amplified and disseminated by the tuberculous granuloma. Bacterial efflux pumps that are required for intracellular growth mediate this macrophage-induced tolerance. This tolerant population also develops when Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects cultured macrophages, suggesting that it contributes to the burden of drug tolerance in human tuberculosis. Efflux pump inhibitors like verapamil reduce this tolerance. Thus, the addition of this currently approved dr! ug or more specific efflux pump inhibitors to standard antitubercular therapy should shorten the duration of curative treatment.
  • The Mre11:Rad50 Structure Shows an ATP-Dependent Molecular Clamp in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair
    - cell 145(1):54-66 (2011)
    The MR (Mre11 nuclease and Rad50 ABC ATPase) complex is an evolutionarily conserved sensor for DNA double-strand breaks, highly genotoxic lesions linked to cancer development. MR can recognize and process DNA ends even if they are blocked and misfolded. To reveal its mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic head of Thermotoga maritima MR and analyzed ATP-dependent conformational changes. MR adopts an open form with a central Mre11 nuclease dimer and two peripheral Rad50 molecules, a form suited for sensing obstructed breaks. The Mre11 C-terminal helix-loop-helix domain binds Rad50 and attaches flexibly to the nuclease domain, enabling large conformational changes. ATP binding to the two Rad50 subunits induces a rotation of the Mre11 helix-loop-helix and Rad50 coiled-coil domains, creating a clamp conformation with increased DNA-binding activity. The results suggest that MR is an ATP-controlled transient molecular clamp at DNA double-strand breaks. PaperFlick To view the video inline, enable JavaScript on your browser. However, you can download and view the video by clicking on the icon below Download this Video (21939 K)
  • Covalent Linkage of Distinct Substrate Degrons Controls Assembly and Disassembly of DegP Proteolytic Cages
    - cell 145(1):67-78 (2011)
    Protein quality control requires careful regulation of intracellular proteolysis. For DegP, a periplasmic protease, substrates promote assembly of inactive hexamers into proteolytically active cages with 12, 18, 24, or 30 subunits. Here, we show that sensitive activation and cage assembly require covalent linkage of distinct substrate sequences that affect degradation (degrons). One degron binds the DegP active site, and another degron binds a separate tethering site in PDZ1 in the crystal structure of a substrate-bound DegP dodecamer. FRET experiments demonstrate that active cages assemble rapidly in a reaction that is positively cooperative in substrate concentration, remain stably assembled while uncleaved substrate is present, and dissociate once degradation is complete. Thus, the energy of binding of linked substrate degrons drives assembly of the proteolytic machine responsible for subsequent degradation. Substrate cleavage and depletion results in disassembly, e! nsuring that DegP is proteolytically active only when sufficient quantities of protein substrates are present.
  • Rhomboid Family Pseudoproteases Use the ER Quality Control Machinery to Regulate Intercellular Signaling
    - cell 145(1):79-91 (2011)
    Intramembrane proteolysis governs many cellular control processes, but little is known about how intramembrane proteases are regulated. iRhoms are a conserved subfamily of proteins related to rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases that lack key catalytic residues. We have used a combination of genetics and cell biology to determine that these "pseudoproteases" inhibit rhomboid-dependent signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in Drosophila, thereby regulating sleep. iRhoms prevent the cleavage of potential rhomboid substrates by promoting their destabilization by endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation; this mechanism has been conserved in mammalian cells. The exploitation of the intrinsic quality control machinery of the ER represents a new mode of regulation of intercellular signaling. Inactive cognates of enzymes are common, but their functions are mostly unclear; our data indicate that pseudoenzymes can readily evolve into regulator! y proteins, suggesting that this may be a significant evolutionary mechanism.
  • NEMO and RIP1 Control Cell Fate in Response to Extensive DNA Damage via TNF-α Feedforward Signaling
    - cell 145(1):92-103 (2011)
    Upon DNA damage, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase triggers multiple events to promote cell survival and facilitate repair. If damage is excessive, ATM stimulates cytokine secretion to alert neighboring cells and apoptosis to eliminate the afflicted cell. ATM augments cell survival by activating nuclear factor (NF)-κB; however, how ATM induces cytokine production and apoptosis remains elusive. Here we uncover a p53-independent mechanism that transmits ATM-driven cytokine and caspase signals upon strong genotoxic damage. Extensive DNA lesions stimulated two sequential NF-κB activation phases, requiring ATM and NEMO/IKK-γ: The first phase induced TNF-α-TNFR1 feedforward signaling, promoting the second phase and driving RIP1 phosphorylation. In turn, RIP1 kinase triggered JNK3/MAPK10-dependent interleukin-8 secretion and FADD-mediated proapoptotic caspase-8 activation. Thus, in the context of excessive DNA damage, ATM employs NEMO and RIP1 kinase through auto! crine TNF-α signaling to switch on cytokine production and caspase activation. These results shed light on cell-fate regulation by ATM.
  • Bcl-xL Retrotranslocates Bax from the Mitochondria into the Cytosol
    - cell 145(1):104-116 (2011)
    The Bcl-2 family member Bax translocates from the cytosol to mitochondria, where it oligomerizes and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane to promote apoptosis. Bax activity is counteracted by prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins, but how they inhibit Bax remains controversial because they neither colocalize nor form stable complexes with Bax. We constrained Bax in its native cytosolic conformation within cells using intramolecular disulfide tethers. Bax tethers disrupt interaction with Bcl-xL in detergents and cell-free MOMP activity but unexpectedly induce Bax accumulation on mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) reveals constant retrotranslocation of WT Bax, but not tethered Bax, from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm of healthy cells. Bax retrotranslocation depends on prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins, and inhibition of retrotranslocation correlates with Bax accumulation on the mitochondria. We propose that Bcl-xL inhibits and maintains Bax in t! he cytosol by constant retrotranslocation of mitochondrial Bax.
  • Loss of Skywalker Reveals Synaptic Endosomes as Sorting Stations for Synaptic Vesicle Proteins
    - cell 145(1):117-132 (2011)
    Exchange of proteins at sorting endosomes is not only critical to numerous signaling pathways but also to receptor-mediated signaling and to pathogen entry into cells; however, how this process is regulated in synaptic vesicle cycling remains unexplored. In this work, we present evidence that loss of function of a single neuronally expressed GTPase activating protein (GAP), Skywalker (Sky) facilitates endosomal trafficking of synaptic vesicles at Drosophila neuromuscular junction boutons, chiefly by controlling Rab35 GTPase activity. Analyses of genetic interactions with the ESCRT machinery as well as chimeric ubiquitinated synaptic vesicle proteins indicate that endosomal trafficking facilitates the replacement of dysfunctional synaptic vesicle components. Consequently, sky mutants harbor a larger readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles and show a dramatic increase in basal neurotransmitter release. Thus, the trafficking of vesicles via endosomes uncovered using ! sky mutants provides an elegant mechanism by which neurons may regulate synaptic vesicle rejuvenation and neurotransmitter release.
  • Presynaptic Facilitation by Neuropeptide Signaling Mediates Odor-Driven Food Search
    - cell 145(1):133-144 (2011)
    Internal physiological states influence behavioral decisions. We have investigated the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms at the first olfactory synapse for starvation modulation of food-search behavior in Drosophila. We found that a local signal by short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and a global metabolic cue by insulin are integrated at specific odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) to modulate olfactory sensitivity. Results from two-photon calcium imaging show that starvation increases presynaptic activity via intraglomerular sNPF signaling. Expression of sNPF and its receptor (sNPFR1) in Or42b neurons is necessary for starvation-induced food-search behavior. Presynaptic facilitation in Or42b neurons is sufficient to mimic starvation-like behavior in fed flies. Furthermore, starvation elevates the transcription level of sNPFR1 but not that of sNPF, and insulin signaling suppresses sNPFR1 expression. Thus, starvation increases expression of sNPFR1 to change the odor map! , resulting in more robust food-search behavior.
  • A Rapid and Scalable System for Studying Gene Function in Mice Using Conditional RNA Interference
    - cell 145(1):145-158 (2011)
    RNA interference is a powerful tool for studying gene function, however, the reproducible generation of RNAi transgenic mice remains a significant limitation. By combining optimized fluorescence-coupled miR30-based shRNAs with high efficiency ES cell targeting, we developed a fast, scalable pipeline for the production of shRNA transgenic mice. Using this system, we generated eight tet-regulated shRNA transgenic lines targeting Firefly and Renilla luciferases, Oct4 and tumor suppressors p53, p16INK4a, p19ARF and APC and demonstrate potent gene silencing and GFP-tracked knockdown in a broad range of tissues in vivo. Further, using an shRNA targeting APC, we illustrate how this approach can identify predicted phenotypes and also unknown functions for a well-studied gene. In addition, through regulated gene silencing we validate APC/Wnt and p19ARF as potential therapeutic targets in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and lung adenocarcinoma, respectively. This sy! stem provides a cost-effective and scalable platform for the production of RNAi transgenic mice targeting any mammalian gene. PaperClip To listen to this audio, enable JavaScript on your browser. However, you can download and play the audio by clicking on the icon below Download this Audio (8458 K)
  • Drug Tolerance in Replicating Mycobacteria Mediated by a Macrophage-Induced Efflux Mechanism
    - cell 145(1):159 (2011)
  • Systematic Protein Location Mapping Reveals Five Principal Chromatin Types in Drosophila Cells
    - cell 145(1):160 (2011)
  • Revisiting the Central Dogma One Molecule at a Time
    - cell 145(1):160 (2011)
  • Retraction Notice to: DNA-PKcs-PIDDosome: A Nuclear Caspase-2-Activating Complex with Role in G2/M Checkpoint Maintenance
    - cell 145(1):161 (2011)
  • SnapShot: The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
    - cell 145(1):162-162.e1 (2011)

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