Thursday, March 3, 2011

Hot off the presses! Mar 04 Cell

The Mar 04 issue of the Cell is now up on Pubget (About Cell): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • In This Issue
    - cell 144(5):627, 629 (2011)
  • Cell Death and Destruction
    - cell 144(5):631, 633 (2011)
    Programmed cell death and autophagy, a limited form of cellular destruction, are implicated in an ever-expanding range of biological processes. In this issue's Select, we highlight recent insights into how these events impinge on cancer progression, Crohn's disease, innate immune responses, and development.
  • Exome Sequencing Deciphers Rare Diseases
    - cell 144(5):635-637 (2011)
    Two years ago, NIH's Undiagnosed Diseases Program began delivering genomics to the clinic on an unprecedented scale. Now, with 128 exomes sequenced and 39 rare diseases diagnosed, the program's success is paving the way for widespread personal genomics while pioneering new techniques for reigning in the "tsunami" of genomics data.
  • Uncovering a Tumor Suppressor for Triple-Negative Breast Cancers
    - cell 144(5):638-640 (2011)
    "Triple-negative" breast cancers are aggressive malignancies that respond poorly to treatments. Now Sun et al. (2011) find that the activity of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN12 is lost in a large percentage of this breast cancer subtype, offering molecular drivers and possible therapeutic targets for this heterogeneous and intractable cancer.
  • The Ribosome and TORC2: Collaborators for Cell Growth
    - cell 144(5):640-642 (2011)
    The target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) is a key regulator of cell growth. Zinzalla et al. (2011) now provide evidence that TORC2 is activated by direct association with the ribosome, which may ensure that TORC2 activity is calibrated to match the cell's intrinsic growth capacity.
  • The Skeleton: The New Controller of Male Fertility?
    - cell 144(5):642-643 (2011)
    Sex steroids, including testosterone, regulate the development and function of the male skeleton. Oury et al. (2011) identify a surprising new connection between the skeleton and the testis, which has implications for male fertility. They show that testosterone production in the testis is directly influenced by the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin.
  • Astrocytes: Powering Memory
    - cell 144(5):644-645 (2011)
    Creating long-term memory requires a cellular program in neurons involving gene expression, protein synthesis, and formation of new synaptic connections. Suzuki et al. (2011) show that astrocytes, glial cells of the brain, play a necessary role in this program by converting glycogen to lactate and transporting it to neurons.
  • Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation
    - cell 144(5):646-674 (2011)
    The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list—reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by ! creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.
  • TLR Signaling Is Required for Salmonella typhimurium Virulence
    - cell 144(5):675-688 (2011)
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) contribute to host resistance to microbial pathogens and can drive the evolution of virulence mechanisms. We have examined the relationship between host resistance and pathogen virulence using mice with a functional allele of the nramp-1 gene and lacking combinations of TLRs. Mice deficient in both TLR2 and TLR4 were highly susceptible to the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium, consistent with reduced innate immune function. However, mice lacking additional TLRs involved in S. typhimurium recognition were less susceptible to infection. In these TLR-deficient cells, bacteria failed to upregulate Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) genes and did not form a replicative compartment. We demonstrate that TLR signaling enhances the rate of acidification of the Salmonella-containing phagosome, and inhibition of this acidification prevents SPI-2 induction. Our results indicate that S. typhimurium requires cues from the innat! e immune system to regulate virulence genes necessary for intracellular survival, growth, and systemic infection. PaperFlick
  • PARIS (ZNF746) Repression of PGC-1α Contributes to Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease
    - cell 144(5):689-702 (2011)
    A hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the preferential loss of substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Here, we identify a new parkin interacting substrate, PARIS (ZNF746), whose levels are regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system via binding to and ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, parkin. PARIS is a KRAB and zinc finger protein that accumulates in models of parkin inactivation and in human PD brain. PARIS represses the expression of the transcriptional coactivator, PGC-1α and the PGC-1α target gene, NRF-1 by binding to insulin response sequences in the PGC-1α promoter. Conditional knockout of parkin in adult animals leads to progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in a PARIS-dependent manner. Moreover, overexpression of PARIS leads to the selective loss of DA neurons in the substantia nigra, and this is reversed by either parkin or PGC-1α coexpression. The identification of PARIS provides a molecular mechanism for neurodegeneration due to parkin ina! ctivation. PaperClip
  • Activation of Multiple Proto-oncogenic Tyrosine Kinases in Breast Cancer via Loss of the PTPN12 Phosphatase
    - cell 144(5):703-718 (2011)
    Among breast cancers, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most poorly understood and is refractory to current targeted therapies. Using a genetic screen, we identify the PTPN12 tyrosine phosphatase as a tumor suppressor in TNBC. PTPN12 potently suppresses mammary epithelial cell proliferation and transformation. PTPN12 is frequently compromised in human TNBCs, and we identify an upstream tumor-suppressor network that posttranscriptionally controls PTPN12. PTPN12 suppresses transformation by interacting with and inhibiting multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases, including HER2 and EGFR. The tumorigenic and metastatic potential of PTPN12-deficient TNBC cells is severely impaired upon restoration of PTPN12 function or combined inhibition of PTPN12-regulated tyrosine kinases, suggesting that TNBCs are dependent on the proto-oncogenic tyrosine kinases constrained by PTPN12. Collectively, these data identify PTPN12 as a commonly inactivated tumor suppressor and provide ! a rationale for combinatorially targeting proto-oncogenic tyrosine kinases in TNBC and other cancers based on their profile of tyrosine-phosphatase activity.
  • A Hierarchical Combination of Factors Shapes the Genome-wide Topography of Yeast Meiotic Recombination Initiation
    - cell 144(5):719-731 (2011)
    The nonrandom distribution of meiotic recombination influences patterns of inheritance and genome evolution, but chromosomal features governing this distribution are poorly understood. Formation of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate recombination results in the accumulation of Spo11 protein covalently bound to small DNA fragments. By sequencing these fragments, we uncover a genome-wide DSB map of unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. We use this map to explore how DSB distribution is influenced by large-scale chromosome structures, chromatin, transcription factors, and local sequence composition. Our analysis offers mechanistic insight into DSB formation and early processing steps, supporting the view that the recombination terrain is molded by combinatorial and hierarchical interaction of factors that work on widely different size scales. This map illuminates the occurrence of DSBs in repetitive DNA elements, repair of which can lead to chromosomal ! rearrangements. We also discuss implications for evolutionary dynamics of recombination hot spots.
  • Double-Strand Breaks in Heterochromatin Move Outside of a Dynamic HP1a Domain to Complete Recombinational Repair
    - cell 144(5):732-744 (2011)
    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) in heterochromatic repetitive DNAs pose significant threats to genome integrity, but information about how such lesions are processed and repaired is sparse. We observe dramatic expansion and dynamic protrusions of the heterochromatin domain in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in Drosophila cells. We also find that heterochromatic DSBs are repaired by homologous recombination (HR) but with striking differences from euchromatin. Proteins involved in early HR events (resection) are rapidly recruited to DSBs within heterochromatin. In contrast, Rad51, which mediates strand invasion, only associates with DSBs that relocalize outside of the domain. Heterochromatin expansion and relocalization of foci require checkpoint and resection proteins. Finally, the Smc5/6 complex is enriched in heterochromatin and is required to exclude Rad51 from the domain and prevent abnormal recombination. We propose that the spatial and temporal control of DSB repa! ir in heterochromatin safeguards genome stability by preventing aberrant exchanges between repeats.
  • Mpk1 MAPK Association with the Paf1 Complex Blocks Sen1-Mediated Premature Transcription Termination
    - cell 144(5):745-756 (2011)
    The Mpk1 MAPK of the yeast cell wall integrity pathway uses a noncatalytic mechanism to activate transcription of stress-induced genes by recruitment of initiation factors to target promoters. We show here that Mpk1 additionally serves a function in transcription elongation that is also independent of its catalytic activity. This function is mediated by an interaction between Mpk1 and the Paf1 subunit of the Paf1C elongation complex. A mutation in Paf1 that blocks this interaction causes a specific defect in transcription elongation of an Mpk1-induced gene, which results from Sen1-dependent premature termination through a Nab3-binding site within the promoter-proximal region of the gene. Our findings reveal a regulatory mechanism in which Mpk1 overcomes transcriptional attenuation by blocking recruitment of the Sen1-Nrd1-Nab3 termination complex to the elongating polymerase. Finally, we demonstrate that this mechanism is conserved in an interaction between the human ER! K5 MAPK and human Paf1.
  • Activation of mTORC2 by Association with the Ribosome
    - cell 144(5):757-768 (2011)
    The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a highly conserved protein kinase and a central controller of growth. Mammalian TOR complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates AGC kinase family members and is implicated in various disorders, including cancer and diabetes. Here, we investigated the upstream regulation of mTORC2. A genetic screen in yeast and subsequent studies in mammalian cells revealed that ribosomes, but not protein synthesis, are required for mTORC2 signaling. Active mTORC2 was physically associated with the ribosome, and insulin-stimulated PI3K signaling promoted mTORC2-ribosome binding, suggesting that ribosomes activate mTORC2 directly. Findings with melanoma and colon cancer cells suggest that mTORC2-ribosome association is important in oncogenic PI3K signaling. Thus, TORC2-ribosome interaction is a likely conserved mechanism of TORC2 activation that is physiologically relevant in both normal and cancer cells. As ribosome content determines growth capacity of a cell, this me! chanism of TORC2 regulation ensures that TORC2 is active only in growing cells.
  • The Mechanism of Linkage-Specific Ubiquitin Chain Elongation by a Single-Subunit E2
    - cell 144(5):769-781 (2011)
    Ubiquitin chains of different topologies trigger distinct functional consequences, including protein degradation and reorganization of complexes. The assembly of most ubiquitin chains is promoted by E2s, yet how these enzymes achieve linkage specificity is poorly understood. We have discovered that the K11-specific Ube2S orients the donor ubiquitin through an essential noncovalent interaction that occurs in addition to the thioester bond at the E2 active site. The E2-donor ubiquitin complex transiently recognizes the acceptor ubiquitin, primarily through electrostatic interactions. The recognition of the acceptor ubiquitin surface around Lys11, but not around other lysines, generates a catalytically competent active site, which is composed of residues of both Ube2S and ubiquitin. Our studies suggest that monomeric E2s promote linkage-specific ubiquitin chain formation through substrate-assisted catalysis.
  • Yap1 Acts Downstream of α-Catenin to Control Epidermal Proliferation
    - cell 144(5):782-795 (2011)
    During development and regeneration, proliferation of tissue-specific stem cells is tightly controlled to produce organs of a predetermined size. The molecular determinants of this process remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the function of Yap1, the transcriptional effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, in skin biology. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that Yap1 is a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation and tissue expansion. Yap1 mediates this effect through interaction with TEAD transcription factors. Additionally, our studies reveal that α-catenin, a molecule previously implicated in tumor suppression and cell density sensing in the skin, is an upstream negative regulator of Yap1. α-catenin controls Yap1 activity and phosphorylation by modulating its interaction with 14-3-3 and the PP2A phosphatase. Together, these data identify Yap1 as a determinant of the proliferative capacity of epidermal stem cells and as an im! portant effector of a "crowd control" molecular circuitry in mammalian skin.
  • Endocrine Regulation of Male Fertility by the Skeleton
    - cell 144(5):796-809 (2011)
    Interactions between bone and the reproductive system have until now been thought to be limited to the regulation of bone remodeling by the gonads. We now show that, in males, bone acts as a regulator of fertility. Using coculture assays, we demonstrate that osteoblasts are able to induce testosterone production by the testes, though they fail to influence estrogen production by the ovaries. Analyses of cell-specific loss- and gain-of-function models reveal that the osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin performs this endocrine function. By binding to a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the Leydig cells of the testes, osteocalcin regulates in a CREB-dependent manner the expression of enzymes that is required for testosterone synthesis, promoting germ cell survival. This study expands the physiological repertoire of osteocalcin and provides the first evidence that the skeleton is an endocrine regulator of reproduction.
  • Astrocyte-Neuron Lactate Transport Is Required for Long-Term Memory Formation
    - cell 144(5):810-823 (2011)
    We report that, in the rat hippocampus, learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels that derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength elicited in vivo. Disrupting the expression of the astrocytic lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) or MCT1 causes amnesia, which, like LTP impairment, is rescued by L-lactate but not equicaloric glucose. Disrupting the expression of the neuronal lactate transporter MCT2 also leads to amnesia that is unaffected by either L-lactate or glucose, suggesting that lactate import into neurons is necessary for long-term memory. Glycogenolysis and astrocytic lactate transporters are also critical for the induction of molecular changes required for memory formation, including the! induction of phospho-CREB, Arc, and phospho-cofilin. We conclude that astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation.
  • Rallying the Exocyst as an Autophagy Scaffold
    - cell 144(5):824 (2011)
  • Functional and Mechanistic Diversity of Distal Transcription Enhancers
    - cell 144(5):825 (2011)
  • Role for Dpy-30 in ES Cell-Fate Specification by Regulation of H3K4 Methylation within Bivalent Domains
    - cell 144(5):825 (2011)
  • SnapShot: Neuromuscular Junction
    - cell 144(5):826-826.e1 (2011)

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