Wednesday, March 2, 2011

Hot off the presses! Mar 01 trends cell biol

The Mar 01 issue of the trends cell biol is now up on Pubget (About trends cell biol): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • Editorial Board
    - trends cell biol 21(3):i (2011)
  • Sensing centromere tension: Aurora B and the regulation of kinetochore function
    - trends cell biol 21(3):133-140 (2011)
    Maintaining genome integrity during cell division requires regulated interactions between chromosomes and spindle microtubules. To ensure that daughter cells inherit the correct chromosomes, the sister kinetochores must attach to opposite spindle poles. Tension across the centromere stabilizes correct attachments, whereas phosphorylation of kinetochore substrates by the conserved Ipl1/Aurora B kinase selectively eliminates incorrect attachments. Here, we review our current understanding of how mechanical forces acting on the kinetochore are linked to biochemical changes to control chromosome segregation. We discuss models for tension sensing and regulation of kinetochore function downstream of Aurora B, and mechanisms that specify Aurora B localization to the inner centromere and determine its interactions with substrates at distinct locations.
  • Septin structure and function in yeast and beyond
    - trends cell biol 21(3):141-148 (2011)
    Septins are conserved GTP-binding proteins that assemble into hetero-oligomeric complexes and higher-order structures such as filaments, rings, hourglasses or gauzes. Septins are usually associated with a discrete region of the plasma membrane and function as a cell scaffold or diffusion barrier to effect cytokinesis, cell polarity, and many other functions. Recent structural studies of septin complexes have provided mechanistic insights into septin filament assembly, but key questions concerning the assembly, dynamics, and function of different septin structures remain to be answered.
  • Location, location, location: new insights into O-GalNAc protein glycosylation
    - trends cell biol 21(3):149-158 (2011)
    O-GalNAc glycosylation of proteins confers essential structural, protective and signaling roles in eumetazoans. Addition of O-glycans onto proteins is an extremely complex process that regulates both sites of attachment and the types of oligosaccharides added. Twenty distinct polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) initiate O-glycosylation and fine-tuning their expression provides a mechanism for regulating this action. Recently, a new mode of regulation has emerged where activation of Src kinase selectively redistributes Golgi-localized GalNAc-Ts to the ER. This relocalization results in a strong increase in the density of O-glycan decoration. In this review, we discuss how different mechanisms can regulate the number and the types of O-glycans decorating proteins. In addition, we speculate how Src-dependent relocation of GalNAc-Ts could play an important role in cancerous cellular transformation.
  • Transport according to GARP: receiving retrograde cargo at the trans-Golgi network
    - trends cell biol 21(3):159-167 (2011)
    Tethering factors are large protein complexes that capture transport vesicles and enable their fusion with acceptor organelles at different stages of the endomembrane system. Recent studies have shed new light on the structure and function of a heterotetrameric tethering factor named Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP), which promotes fusion of endosome-derived, retrograde transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). X-ray crystallography of the Vps53 and Vps54 subunits of GARP has revealed that this complex is structurally related to other tethering factors such as the exocyst, the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) and Dsl1 (dependence on SLY1–20) complexes, indicating that they all might work by a similar mechanism. Loss of GARP function compromises the growth, fertility and/or viability of the defective organisms, emphasizing the essential nature of GARP-mediated retrograde transport.
  • Chaperoning osteogenesis: new protein-folding disease paradigms
    - trends cell biol 21(3):168-176 (2011)
    Recent discoveries of severe bone disorders in patients with deficiencies in several endoplasmic reticulum chaperones are reshaping the discussion of type I collagen folding and related diseases. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in all vertebrates and a crucial structural molecule for bone and other connective tissues. Its misfolding causes bone fragility, skeletal deformity and other tissue failures. Studies of newly discovered bone disorders indicate that collagen folding, chaperones involved in the folding process, cellular responses to misfolding and related bone pathologies might not follow conventional protein folding paradigms. In this review, we examine the features that distinguish collagen folding from that of other proteins and describe the findings that are beginning to reveal how cells manage collagen folding and misfolding. We discuss implications of these studies for general protein folding paradigms, unfolded protein response in cells and pr! otein folding diseases.
  • Three's company: the fission yeast actin cytoskeleton
    - trends cell biol 21(3):177-187 (2011)
    How the actin cytoskeleton assembles into different structures to drive diverse cellular processes is a fundamental cell biological question. In addition to orchestrating the appropriate combination of regulators and actin-binding proteins, different actin-based structures must insulate themselves from one another to maintain specificity within a crowded cytoplasm. Actin specification is particularly challenging in complex eukaryotes where a multitude of protein isoforms and actin structures operate within the same cell. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe possesses a single actin isoform that functions in three distinct structures throughout the cell cycle. In this review we explore recent studies in fission yeast that help unravel how different actin structures operate in cells.
  • DnaA and ORC: more than DNA replication initiators
    - trends cell biol 21(3):188-194 (2011)
    Mutations in DNA replication initiator genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes lead to a pleiotropic array of phenotypes, including defects in chromosome segregation, cytokinesis, cell cycle regulation and gene expression. For years, it was not clear whether these diverse effects were indirect consequences of perturbed DNA replication, or whether they indicated that DNA replication initiator proteins had roles beyond their activity in initiating DNA synthesis. Recent work from a range of organisms has demonstrated that DNA replication initiator proteins play direct roles in many cellular processes, often functioning to coordinate the initiation of DNA replication with essential cell-cycle activities. The aim of this review is to highlight these new findings, focusing on the pathways and mechanisms utilized by DNA replication initiator proteins to carry out a diverse array of cellular functions.

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