Latest Articles Include:
- Editorial Board
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):CO2 (2009)
- Contents List
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):iv (2009)
- This Month in DNA Repair
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):569 (2009)
- Loading clamps for DNA replication and repair
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):570-578 (2009)
Sliding clamps and clamp loaders were initially identified as DNA polymerase processivity factors. Sliding clamps are ring-shaped protein complexes that encircle and slide along duplex DNA, and clamp loaders are enzymes that load these clamps onto DNA. When bound to a sliding clamp, DNA polymerases remain tightly associated with the template being copied, but are able to translocate along DNA at rates limited by rates of nucleotide incorporation. Many different enzymes required for DNA replication and repair use sliding clamps. Clamps not only increase the processivity of these enzymes, but may also serve as an attachment point to coordinate the activities of enzymes required for a given process. Clamp loaders are members of the AAA+ family of ATPases and use energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis to catalyze the mechanical reaction of loading clamps onto DNA. Many structural and functional features of clamps and clamp loaders are conserved across all domains of life. ! Here, the mechanism of clamp loading is reviewed by comparing features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic clamps and clamp loaders.
- Population-specific variation in haplotype composition and heterozygosity at the POLB locus
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):579-584 (2009)
DNA polymerase beta plays a central role in base excision repair (BER), which removes large numbers of endogenous DNA lesions from each cell on a daily basis. Little is currently known about germline polymorphisms within the POLB locus, making it difficult to study the association of variants at this locus with human diseases such as cancer. Yet, approximately thirty percent of human tumor types show variants of DNA polymerase beta. We have assessed the global frequency distributions of coding and common non-coding SNPs in and flanking the POLB gene for a total of 14 sites typed in approximately 2400 individuals from anthropologically defined human populations worldwide. We have found a marked difference between haplotype frequencies in African populations and in non-African populations.
- Interaction with DNA polymerase η is required for nuclear accumulation of REV1 and suppression of spontaneous mutations in human cells
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):585-599 (2009)
Defects in the gene encoding human Polη result in xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V), an inherited cancer-prone syndrome. Polη catalyzes efficient and accurate translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) past UV-induced lesions. In addition to Polη, human cells have multiple TLS polymerases such as Polι, Polκ, Polζ and REV1. REV1 physically interacts with other TLS polymerases, but the physiological relevance of the interaction remains unclear. Here we developed an antibody that detects the endogenous REV1 protein and found that human cells contain about 60,000 of REV1 molecules per cell as well as Polη. In un-irradiated cells, formation of nuclear foci by ectopically expressed REV1 was enhanced by the co-expression of Polη. Importantly, the endogenous REV1 protein accumulated at the UV-irradiated areas of nuclei in Polη-expressing cells but not in Polη-deficient XP-V cells. UV-irradiation induced nuclear foci of REV1 and Polη proteins in both S-phase and G1 cells, su! ggesting that these proteins may function both during and outside S phase. We reconstituted XP-V cells with wild-type Polη or with Polη mutants harboring substitutions in phenylalanine residues critical for interaction with REV1. The REV1-interaction-deficient Polη mutant failed to promote REV1 accumulation at sites of UV-irradiation, yet (similar to wild-type Polη) corrected the UV sensitivity of XP-V cells and suppressed UV-induced mutations. Interestingly however, spontaneous mutations of XP-V cells were only partially suppressed by the REV1-interaction deficient mutant of Polη. Thus, Polη–REV1 interactions prevent spontaneous mutations, probably by promoting accurate TLS past endogenous DNA lesions, while the interaction is dispensable for accurate Polη-mediated TLS of UV-induced lesions.
- Damage recognition by UV damage endonuclease from Schizosaccharomyces pombe
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):600-611 (2009)
UV damage endonuclease (UVDE) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe initiates repair of UV lesions and abasic sites by nicking the DNA 5′ to the damaged site. In this paper we show that in addition UVDE incises DNA containing a single-strand nick or gap, but that the enzymatic activity on these substrates as well as on abasic sites strongly depends on the presence of a neighbouring pyrimidine residue. This indicates that, although UVDE may have been derived from an ancestral AP endonuclease its major substrate is a UV lesion and not an AP site. We propose that UVDE rotates two nucleotides into a pocket of the protein in order to bring the scissile bond close to the active site and that purine bases are excluded from this pocket. We also show that in the DNA complex residue Tyr-358 of UVDE penetrates the DNA helix causing unstacking of two residues opposite the lesion, thereby stabilizing the protein–DNA interaction, most likely by promoting bending of the DNA. In the abse! nce of Tyr-358 the enzyme exhibits an increased catalytic activity on UV-induced lesions, but only at a lower pH of 6.5. At physiological conditions (pH 7.5) the mutant protein completely looses its catalytic activity although it can still bind to the DNA. We propose that in addition to stabilizing the bend in the DNA the hydrophobic side chain of Tyr-358 shields the active site from exposure to the solvent.
- Characterization in vitro and in vivo of the DNA helicase encoded by Deinococcus radiodurans locus DR1572
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):612-619 (2009)
Deinococcus radiodurans survives extremely high doses of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation and treatment with various DNA-damaging chemicals. As an effort to identify and characterize proteins that function in DNA repair in this organism, we have studied the protein encoded by locus DR1572. This gene is predicted to encode a Superfamily I DNA helicase, except that genome sequencing indicated that it has a one-base frameshift and would not encode a complete helicase. We have cloned the gene from two different D. radiodurans strains and find that the frameshift mutation is not present. The corrected gene encodes a 755 residue protein that is similar to the Bacillus subtilis YvgS protein and to helicase IV of Escherichia coli. The purified protein (helicase IVDr) has ATP hydrolysis and DNA helicase activity. A truncated protein that lacks 214 residues from the N-terminus, which precede the conserved helicase domain, has greater ATPase activity than the full-length protei! n but has no detectable helicase activity. Disruption of locus DR1572 in the D. radiodurans chromosome causes greater sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and methyl-methanesulfonate compared to wild-type cells, but no change in resistance to gamma and ultraviolet radiation and to mitomycin C. The results indicate that locus DR1572 encodes a complete protein that contributes to DNA metabolism in D. radiodurans.
- Stimulation of direct-repeat recombination by RNA polymerase III transcription
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):620-626 (2009)
Eukaryotic cells have to regulate the progression and integrity of DNA replication forks through concomitantly transcribed genes. A transcription-dependent increase of recombination within protein-coding and ribosomal genes of eukaryotic cells is well documented. Here we addressed whether tRNA transcription and tRNA-dependent transcription-associated replication pausing leads to genetic instability. Thus, we designed a plasmid based, LEU2 direct-repeat containing system for the analysis of factors that contribute to tRNASUP53-dependent genetic instability. We show that tRNASUP53 transcription is recombinogenic and that recombination can be further stimulated by deletion of the 5′ to 3′ helicase Rrm3. Furthermore, tRNASUP53-dependent recombination was markedly increased in the presence of 4-NQO in rrm3Δ cells only. The frequency of recombination events mediated by tRNASUP53 transcription does not correlate with the appearance and intensity of replication fork pausi! ng sites. Our results provide evidence that the convergent encounter of replication and RNA polymerase III transcription machineries stimulates recombination, although to a lesser extent than RNA polymerase I or II transcription. However, there is no correlation between recombination and the specific replication fork pausing sites found at the tRNA SUP53 gene. Our results indicate that tRNA-specific replication fork pausing sites are poorly recombinogenic.
- The role of novel genes rrp1+ and rrp2+ in the repair of DNA damage in Schizosaccharomyces pombe
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):627-636 (2009)
We identified two predicted proteins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Rrp1 (SPAC17A2.12) and Rrp2 (SPBC23E6.02) that share 34% and 36% similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ris1p, respectively. Ris1p is a DNA-dependent ATP-ase involved in gene silencing and DNA repair. Rrp1 and Rrp2 also share similarity with S. cerevisiae Rad5 and S. pombe Rad8, containing SNF2-N, RING finger and Helicase-C domains. To investigate the function of the Rrp proteins, we studied the DNA damage sensitivities and genetic interactions of null mutants with known DNA repair mutants. Single Δrrp1 and Δrrp2 mutants were not sensitive to CPT, 4NQO, CDPP, MMS, HU, UV or IR. The double mutants Δrrp1 Δrhp51 and Δrrp2 Δrhp51 plus the triple Δrrp1 Δrrp2 Δrhp51 mutant did not display significant additional sensitivity. However, the double mutants Δrrp1 Δrhp57 and Δrrp2 Δrhp57 were significantly more sensitive to MMS, CPT, HU and IR than the Δrhp57 single mutant. The checkpoint response in t! hese strains was functional. In S. pombe, Rhp55/57 acts in parallel with a second mediator complex, Swi5/Sfr1, to facilitate Rhp51-dependent DNA repair. Δrrp1 Δsfr1 and Δrrp2 Δsfr1 double mutants did not show significant additional sensitivity, suggesting a function for Rrp proteins in the Swi5/Sfr1 pathway of DSB repair. Consistent with this, Δrrp1 Δrhp57 and Δrrp2 Δrhp57 mutants, but not Δrrp1 Δsfr1 or Δrrp2 Δsfr1 double mutants, exhibited slow growth and aberrations in cell and nuclear morphology that are typical of Δrhp51.
- Involvement of specialized DNA polymerases in mutagenesis by 8-hydroxy-dGTP in human cells
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):637-642 (2009)
The mutagenicity of an oxidized form of dGTP, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine 5′-triphosphate (8-OH-dGTP), was examined using human 293T cells. Shuttle plasmid DNA containing the supF gene was first transfected into the cells, and then 8-OH-dGTP was introduced by means of osmotic pressure. The DNAs replicated in the cells were recovered and then transfected into Escherichia coli. 8-OH-dGTP induced A:T → C:G substitution mutations in the cells. The knock-downs of DNA polymerases η and ζ, and REV1 by siRNAs reduced the A:T → C:G substitution mutations, suggesting that these DNA polymerases are involved in the misincorporation of 8-OH-dGTP opposite A in human cells. In contrast, the knock-down of DNA polymerase ι did not affect the 8-OH-dGTP-induced mutations. The decrease in the induced mutation frequency was more evident by double knock-downs of DNA pols η plus ζ and REV1 plus DNA pol ζ (but not by that of DNA pol η plus REV1), suggesting that REV1-DNA pol η! and DNA pol ζ work in different steps. These results indicate that specialized DNA polymerases are involved in the mutagenesis induced by the oxidized dGTP.
- Plant and fungal Fpg homologs are formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylases but not 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylases
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):643-653 (2009)
Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) share an overall common three-dimensional structure and primary amino acid sequence in conserved structural motifs but have different substrate specificities, with bacterial Fpg proteins recognizing formamidopyrimidines, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and its oxidation products guanidinohydantoin (Gh), and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and bacterial Nei proteins recognizing primarily damaged pyrimidines. In addition to bacteria, Fpg has also been found in plants, while Nei is sparsely distributed among the prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis of Fpg and Nei DNA glycosylases demonstrated, with 95% bootstrap support, a clade containing exclusively sequences from plants and fungi. Members of this clade exhibit sequence features closer to bacterial Fpg proteins than to any protein designated as Nei based on biochemical studies. The Candida albicans (Cal) Fpg DNA glycosylase and a previously studied Arab! idopsis thaliana (Ath) Fpg DNA glycosylase were expressed, purified and characterized. In oligodeoxynucleotides, the preferred glycosylase substrates for both enzymes were Gh and Sp, the oxidation products of 8-oxoG, with the best substrate being a site of base loss. GC/MS analysis of bases released from γ-irradiated DNA show FapyAde and FapyGua to be excellent substrates as well. Studies carried out with oligodeoxynucleotide substrates demonstrate that both enzymes discriminated against A opposite the base lesion, characteristic of Fpg glycosylases. Single turnover kinetics with oligodeoxynucleotides showed that the plant and fungal glycosylases were most active on Gh and Sp, less active on oxidized pyrimidines and exhibited very little or no activity on 8-oxoG. Surprisingly, the activity of AthFpg1 on an AP site opposite a G was extremely robust with a kobs of over 2500 min−1.
- In vitro complementation of Tdp1 deficiency indicates a stabilized enzyme-DNA adduct from tyrosyl but not glycolate lesions as a consequence of the SCAN1 mutation
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):654-663 (2009)
A homozygous H493R mutation in the active site of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) has been implicated in hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1), an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease. However, it is uncertain how the H493R mutation elicits the specific pathologies of SCAN1. To address this question, and to further elucidate the role of TDP1 in repair of DNA end modifications and general physiology, we generated a Tdp1 knockout mouse and carried out detailed behavioral analyses as well as characterization of repair deficiencies in extracts of embryo fibroblasts from these animals. While Tdp1−/− mice appear phenotypically normal, extracts from Tdp1−/− fibroblasts exhibited deficiencies in processing 3′-phosphotyrosyl single-strand breaks and 3′-phosphoglycolate double-strand breaks (DSBs), but not 3′-phosphoglycolate single-strand breaks. Supplementing Tdp1−/− extracts with H493R TDP1 partially restored processi! ng of 3′-phosphotyrosyl single-strand breaks, but with evidence of persistent covalent adducts between TDP1 and DNA, consistent with a proposed intermediate-stabilization effect of the SCAN1 mutation. However, H493R TDP1 supplementation had no effect on phosphoglycolate (PG) termini on 3′ overhangs of double-strand breaks; these remained completely unprocessed. Altogether, these results suggest that for 3′-phosphoglycolate overhang lesions, the SCAN1 mutation confers loss of function, while for 3′-phosphotyrosyl lesions, the mutation uniquely stabilizes a reaction intermediate.
- Topical thymidine dinucleotide application protects against UVB-induced skin cancer in mice with DNA repair gene (Ercc1)-deficient skin
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):664-671 (2009)
Topical application of thymidine dinucleotides (pTpT) provides some protection against the effects of UV on the skin, however, many details of the protective mechanism have yet to be elucidated. We have used mice with an epidermis-specific knockout for the nucleotide excision repair gene, Ercc1, to investigate the mechanisms of protection. pTpT offered no protection against the pronounced UV-induced short-term erythema and skin thickening responses that are characteristic of DNA repair-deficient skin. It also had no effect on UV-induced apoptosis in Ercc1-deficient cultured keratinocytes. However, in these short-term experiments in both skin and keratinocyte culture pTpT did cause a slight reduction in proliferation. pTpT application during a chronic UV irradiation protocol provided some protection from UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in epidermis-specific Ercc1 knockout mice. The median tumour free survival time was increased in the pTpT-treated group and treated anim! als had fewer tumours. In addition, pTpT-treated animals developed fewer large inwardly growing skin lesions than untreated animals. Furthermore, the proliferation response was reduced in chronically irradiated, non-lesional pTpT-treated skin. We conclude that cancer protection by pTpT in our mice is not modulated by an upregulation of DNA repair, as protection appears to be independent of a functional nucleotide excision repair pathway. We hypothesise instead that protection by pTpT is due to a reduction in epidermal proliferation.
- Screening a genome-wide S. pombe deletion library identifies novel genes and pathways involved in genome stability maintenance
- DNA Repair (Amst) 8(5):672-679 (2009)
The maintenance of genome stability is essential for an organism to avoid cell death and cancer. Based on screens for mutant sensitivity against DNA damaging agents a large number of DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint genes have previously been identified in genetically amenable model organisms. These screens have however not been exhaustive and various genes have been, and remain to be, identified by other means. We therefore screened a genome-wide Schizosaccharomyces pombe deletion library for mutants sensitive against various DNA damaging agents. Screening the library on different concentrations of these genotoxins allowed us to assign a semi-quantitative score to each mutant expressing the degree of sensitivity. We isolated a total of 229 mutants which show sensitivity to one or more of the DNA damaging agents used. This set of mutants was significantly enriched for processes involved in DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage checkpoint, response to UV, mating t! ype switching, telomere length maintenance and meiosis, and also for processes involved in the establishment and maintenance of chromatin architecture (notably members of the SAGA complex), transcription (members of the CCR4-Not complex) and microtubule related processes (members of the DASH complex). We also identified 23 sensitive mutants which had previously been classified as "sequence orphan" or as "conserved hypothetical". Among these, we identified genes showing extensive homology to CtIP, Stra13, Ybp1/Ybp2, Human Fragile X mental retardation interacting protein NUFIP1, and Aprataxin. The identification of these homologues will provide a basis for the further characterisation of the role of these conserved proteins in the genetically amenable model organism S. pombe.