Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Hot off the presses! May 01 Nat Rev Neurosci

The May 01 issue of the Nat Rev Neurosci is now up on Pubget (About Nat Rev Neurosci): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):243 (2011)
  • Neuroanatomy: Mapping neural function alongside connectivity | PDF (142 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):245 (2011)
    A detailed understanding of neuronal circuits will require the ability to combine knowledge of neuronal anatomy and activity. Now, two studies provide a first step in this direction by demonstrating that neural function can be integrated with network connectivity through a combination of functional imaging and serial electron microscopy.
  • Microglia: Non-apoptotic caspases are no less deadly | PDF (140 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):246 (2011)
    Caspases are proteases that are best known for triggering apoptotic cell death. However, a study in Nature shows a novel, non-apoptotic role for caspases in the activation of microglia and subsequent neurotoxicity.
  • Neurodegenerative disease: A target map for TDP43 | PDF (260 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):246 (2011)
    Cytoplasmic aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43), and mutations in the gene that encodes it, have been linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, bringing it to the forefront of neurodegeneration research. The contribution of TDP43 to the disease processes is unclear; however, two recent papers bring us closer to an understanding of its functional roles by characterizing its RNA targets in the brain.
  • Adult neurogenesis: Uncoupling the roles of VEGF | PDF (216 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):247 (2011)
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is required for angiogenesis and is known to influence adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent memory. Investigating whether these roles are linked, Licht et al.
  • Neurological disorders | Visual system | Stem cells | Behaviour | PDF (91 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):247 (2011)
    A reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosisNikic´, al. Nature Med.27 March 2011 (doi:10.1038/nm.2324)
  • Development: Directing development through phosphorylation | PDF (216 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):248 (2011)
    Oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) has multiple roles in mammalian CNS development, determining neuronal and glial fates, and instructing neural progenitors to undergo proliferation or differentiation. The mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear; however, two new studies reveal that the phosphorylation status of OLIG2 is a key determinant of this transcription factor's actions.
  • Autism: Grooming mice to model autism | PDF (153 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):248 (2011)
    A mutation in the gene encoding the postsynaptic density (PSD) protein SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein 3 (SHANK3) has been identified by genetic screens as a candidate for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and is thought to be a crucial determinant of the behavioural deficits in the ASD 22q13 deletion (Phelan–McDermid) syndrome. However, the contribution of defective SHANK3 to ASDs, and its possible mechanism of action, have remained unknown.
  • Synaptogenesis: Switching to learn | PDF (154 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):248 (2011)
    Synaptic plasticity relies on the continuous assembly and disassembly of synapses. Two studies now show that murine β-adducin and its fly homologue HTS, which are actin capping, spectrin binding molecules, have major roles in the coordination of these processes in the hippocampus and neuromuscular junction (NMJ), respectively.
  • Glia | Repair | Neurological disorders | Sensory systems | PDF (98 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):249 (2011)
    TNFα controls glutamatergic gliotransmission in the hippocampal dentate gyrus Santello, M., Bezzi, P. & Volterra, A.Neuron 69, 988–1001 (2011)
  • The role of ubiquitylation in nerve cell development
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):251 (2011)
    Nerve cell development in the brain is a tightly regulated process. The generation of neurons from precursor cells, their migration to the appropriate target sites, their extensive arborization and their integration into functional networks through synapse formation and refinement are governed by multiple interdependent signalling cascades. The function and turnover of proteins involved in these signalling cascades, in turn, are spatially and temporally controlled by ubiquitylation. Recent advances have provided first insights into the highly complex and intricate molecular pathways that regulate ubiquitylation during all stages of neural development and that operate in parallel with other regulatory processes such as phosphorylation or cyclic nucleotide signalling.
  • Not(ch) just development: Notch signalling in the adult brain
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):269 (2011)
    The Notch pathway is often regarded as a developmental pathway, but components of Notch signalling are expressed and active in the adult brain. With the advent of more sophisticated genetic manipulations, evidence has emerged that suggests both conserved and novel roles for Notch signalling in the adult brain. Not surprisingly, Notch is a key regulator of adult neural stem cells, but it is increasingly clear that Notch signalling also has roles in the regulation of migration, morphology, synaptic plasticity and survival of immature and mature neurons. Understanding the many functions of Notch signalling in the adult brain, and its dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease and malignancy, is crucial to the development of new therapeutics that are centred around this pathway.
  • Linking lipids to Alzheimer's disease: cholesterol and beyond
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):284 (2011)
    Lipid-mediated signalling regulates a plethora of physiological processes, including crucial aspects of brain function. In addition, dysregulation of lipid pathways has been implicated in a growing number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although much attention has been given to the link between cholesterol and AD pathogenesis, growing evidence suggests that other lipids, such as phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid, have an important role. Regulators of lipid metabolism (for example, statins) are a highly successful class of marketed drugs, and exploration of lipid dysregulation in AD and identification of novel therapeutic agents acting through relevant lipid pathways offers new and effective options for the treatment of this devastating disorder.
  • Neuroscience in recession?
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):297 (2011)
    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists — both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute — becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research.
  • Correspondence: Unconscious by any other name...
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):302 (2011)
    In their Review (Neural bases of the non-conscious perception of emotional signals. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 11, 697–709 (2010)

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