Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Hot off the presses! Nov 01 Trends Ecol Evol

The Nov 01 issue of the Trends Ecol Evol is now up on Pubget (About Trends Ecol Evol): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • Editorial Board
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):i (2011)
  • The population ecology and social behaviour of taxonomists
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):551-553 (2011)
  • Climate change responses: forgetting frogs, ferns and flies?
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):553-554 (2011)
  • Climate change, body size, and phenotype dependent dispersal
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):554-555 (2011)
  • Mechanisms and consequences of changing body size: reply to Bickford et al. and McCauley and Mabry
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):555-556 (2011)
  • Gene duplication might not resolve intralocus sexual conflict
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):556-557 (2011)
  • Gene duplication might resolve intralocus sexual conflict
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):558-559 (2011)
  • Understanding parasite ecology and evolution in the light of immunology
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):559-560 (2011)
  • The genetics of migration on the move
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):561-569 (2011)
    Across a range of organisms, related species or even populations of the same species exhibit strikingly different scales and patterns of movement. A significant proportion of the phenotypic variance in migratory traits is genetic, but the genes involved in shaping these phenotypes are still unknown. Although recent achievements in genomics will evolve migratory genetics research from a phenotypic to a molecular approach, fully sequenced and annotated genomes of migratory species are still lacking. Consequently, many of the genes involved in migration are unavailable as candidates. Migration is central to the life-history adaptations of many animals. Here, we review current understanding of the genetic architecture of migratory traits and discuss the significant implications this will have for other areas of biology, including population responses to climate change, speciation and conservation management.
  • White-nose syndrome: is this emerging disease a threat to European bats?
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):570-576 (2011)
    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a newly emergent disease that potentially threatens all temperate bat species. A recently identified fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent of this disease. Until 2009, WNS and G. destructans were exclusively known from North America, but recent studies have confirmed this fungus is also present in Europe. We assembled an international WNS consortium of 67 scientists from 29 countries and identified the most important research and conservation priorities to assess the risk of WNS to European bats. Here, we review what is known about WNS and G. destructans and detail the conservation and research recommendations aimed at understanding and containing this emerging infectious disease.
  • Genotype networks shed light on evolutionary constraints
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):577-584 (2011)
    An evolutionary constraint is a bias or limitation in phenotypic variation that a biological system produces. One can distinguish physicochemical, selective, genetic and developmental causes of such constraints. Here, I discuss these causes in three classes of system that bring forth many phenotypic traits and evolutionary innovations: regulatory circuits, macromolecules and metabolic networks. In these systems, genotypes with the same phenotype form large genotype networks that extend throughout a vast genotype space. Such genotype networks can help unify different causes of evolutionary constraints. They can show that these causes ultimately emerge from the process of development; that is, how phenotypes form from genotypes. Furthermore, they can explain important consequences of constraints, such as punctuated stasis and canalization.
  • Conservation successes at micro-, meso- and macroscales
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):585-594 (2011)
    Although large-scale biodiversity declines are ongoing, certain conservation actions have made a positive difference. Rates of extinction and endangerment of vertebrate species, for instance, have probably been reduced via conservation interventions. Such conservation actions operate at different spatial scales. Habitat preservation and endangered species recovery are examples of conservation successes at microscales. Mesoscale conservation includes regional cooperation among neighboring countries that has arrested population declines of endangered species, such as mountain gorillas. At macroscales, public pressure on multinational corporations has sometimes resulted in their abandoning environmentally damaging practices or suppliers with poor environmental records. Overall, conservation projects such as these need more long-term funding and greater political and popular support, and must also include provisions to evaluate and document their outcomes. As we discuss he! re, a focus on conservation successes achieved at different scales can help to promote these aims and guide future conservation victories.
  • Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):595-605 (2011)
    Many marine populations and ecosystems have experienced strong historical depletions, yet reports of recoveries are increasing. Here, we review the growing research on marine recoveries to reveal how common recovery is, its magnitude, timescale and major drivers. Overall, 10–50% of depleted populations and ecosystems show some recovery, but rarely to former levels of abundance. In addition, recovery can take many decades for long-lived species and complex ecosystems. Major drivers of recovery include the reduction of human impacts, especially exploitation, habitat loss and pollution, combined with favorable life-history and environmental conditions. Awareness, legal protection and enforcement of management plans are also crucial. Learning from historical recovery successes and failures is essential for implementing realistic conservation goals and promising management strategies.
  • Impacts of warming on tropical lowland rainforests
    - Trends Ecol Evol 26(11):606-613 (2011)
    Before the end of this century, tropical rainforests will be subject to climatic conditions that have not existed anywhere on Earth for millions of years. These forests are the most species-rich ecosystems in the world and play a crucial role in regulating carbon and water feedbacks in the global climate system; therefore, it is important that the probable impacts of anthropogenic climate change are understood. However, the recent literature shows a striking range of views on the vulnerability of tropical rainforests, from least to most concern among major ecosystems. This review, which focuses on the impact of rising temperatures, examines the evidence for and against high vulnerability, identifies key research needs for resolving current differences and suggests ways of mitigating or adapting to potential impacts.

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