Friday, February 18, 2011

Hot off the presses! Mar 01 Nat Rev Neurosci

The Mar 01 issue of the Nat Rev Neurosci is now up on Pubget (About Nat Rev Neurosci): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):119 (2011)
  • Oscillations: Networking improves performance | PDF (251 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):121 (2011)
    Different brain areas, each specialized for a particular function, interact with each other during a cognitive operation, thus temporarily forming a functional cortical network. Using a new method of analysis, Hipp and colleagues now reveal that during sensory stimulation, two networks emerge, and that synchronized activity in these networks influences perception.
  • Memory: A growing role for IGF2 | PDF (193 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):122 (2011)
    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is important in body growth and development, but its role in the adult brain has not been established. It is highly expressed in the hippocampus, and Alberini and colleagues now show that in this region it has a crucial role in memory consolidation and can improve memory retention.
  • Repair | Genetics | Active zone | PDF (123 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):122 (2011)
    Reversing pathological neural activity using targeted plasticity Engineer, N. al. Nature 470, 101–104 (2011)
  • Sleep: A sleep–wake divergence | PDF (168 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):123 (2011)
    According to the reconsolidation theory, reactivation of a memory renders it unstable — and thereby vulnerable to external influences — after which it can be reconsolidated in order to persist. Memory reactivation can also occur during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and probably underlies the consolidating effect of sleep, but whether this also involves transient destabilization of a memory has remained unknown.
  • Regeneration: A regenerative medicine | PDF (257 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):123 (2011)
    Axon regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is hampered by the formation of hypertrophic scar tissue and the intrinsically low capacity of CNS axons for regrowth. Attempts to stimulate regeneration by blocking growth-inhibiting factors have met with limited success.
  • Endocannabinoids: A healthy diet is good for LTD | PDF (170 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):124 (2011)
    A modern Western diet is rich in fats, but often lacks the essential fatty acids α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, which are required to synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A new study shows that a lifetime of α-linolenic acid deficiency causes synaptic alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and changes emotional behaviour in mice.
  • Development: New rules of attraction | PDF (192 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):124 (2011)
    The interaction between CXC-chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and CXC-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) plays a key part in cell migration during CNS development. More recently, CXCR7 has also been identified as a receptor for CXCL12, but the physiological significance of this finding was unknown.
  • Addiction: Knowing when to stop | PDF (217 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):124 (2011)
    Polymorphisms in CHRNA5 — which encodes the α5 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) — are associated with an increased risk of tobacco addiction, but the reason for this has remained unclear. Now, Kenny and colleagues show that α5-containing nAChRs are crucially involved in an inhibitory motivational pathway that limits nicotine consumption.
  • Homeostasis | Development | Sensory systems | Retina | PDF (124 KB)
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):125 (2011)
    The molecular and cellular identity of peripheral osmoreceptors Lechner, S. al. Neuron 69, 332–344 (2011)
  • Protein scaffolds in the coupling of synaptic exocytosis and endocytosis
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):127 (2011)
    Mechanisms that ensure robust long-term performance of synaptic transmission over a wide range of activity are crucial for the integrity of neuronal networks, for processing sensory information and for the ability to learn and store memories. Recent experiments have revealed that such robust performance requires a tight coupling between exocytic vesicle fusion at defined release sites and endocytic retrieval of synaptic vesicle membranes. Distinct presynaptic scaffolding proteins are essential for fulfilling this requirement, providing either ultrastructural coordination or acting as signalling hubs.
  • Molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in mammalian sensory neurons
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):139 (2011)
    The somatosensory system mediates fundamental physiological functions, including the senses of touch, pain and proprioception. This variety of functions is matched by a diverse array of mechanosensory neurons that respond to force in a specific fashion. Mechanotransduction begins at the sensory nerve endings, which rapidly transform mechanical forces into electrical signals. Progress has been made in establishing the functional properties of mechanoreceptors, but it has been remarkably difficult to characterize mechanotranducer channels at the molecular level. However, in the past few years, new functional assays have provided insights into the basic properties and molecular identity of mechanotransducer channels in mammalian sensory neurons. The recent identification of novel families of proteins as mechanosensing molecules will undoubtedly accelerate our understanding of mechanotransduction mechanisms in mammalian somatosensation.
  • The integration of negative affect, pain and cognitive control in the cingulate cortex
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):154 (2011)
    It has been argued that emotion, pain and cognitive control are functionally segregated in distinct subdivisions of the cingulate cortex. However, recent observations encourage a fundamentally different view. Imaging studies demonstrate that negative affect, pain and cognitive control activate an overlapping region of the dorsal cingulate — the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Anatomical studies reveal that the aMCC constitutes a hub where information about reinforcers can be linked to motor centres responsible for expressing affect and executing goal-directed behaviour. Computational modelling and other kinds of evidence suggest that this intimacy reflects control processes that are common to all three domains. These observations compel a reconsideration of the dorsal cingulate's contribution to negative affect and pain.
  • Engaging neuroscience to advance translational research in brain barrier biology
    - Nat Rev Neurosci 12(3):169 (2011)
    The delivery of many potentially therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to specific areas of the brain is restricted by brain barriers, of which the most well known are the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. Recent studies have shown numerous additional roles of these barriers, including an involvement in neurodevelopment, in the control of cerebral blood flow, and — when barrier integrity is impaired — in the pathology of many common CNS disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke.

No comments: