Thursday, February 24, 2011

Hot off the presses! Feb 25 Immunity

The Feb 25 issue of the Immunity is now up on Pubget (About Immunity): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • RAG-2 Unleashed: Lymphocytes Beware
    - Immunity 34(2):137-139 (2011)
    The programmed degradation of the RAG-2 enzyme upon entry to S phase restricts V(D)J recombination to the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle. In this issue of Immunity, Zhang et al. (2011) show that this is critical to prevent lymphoma formation.
  • PAIRing for Distal Igh Locus V(D)J Recombination
    - Immunity 34(2):139-141 (2011)
    In this issue of Immunity Ebert et al. (2011) defined the lineage- and stage-specific Pax5-dependent cis-sequences termed PAIR elements in the distal region of the mouse heavy chain immunoglobulin locus (Igh). These sequences may have a role in long-range IgH V(D)J recombination.
  • From the Loading Dock to the Boardroom: A New Job for Akt Kinase
    - Immunity 34(2):141-143 (2011)
    A new report in Immunity shows that, rather than driving the metabolic changes required for proliferation, Akt controls the gene expression programs that determine whether activated CD8+ T cells differentiate into memory or effector cells.
  • Plasmacytoid DCs Induce Gutsy Plasma Cells
    - Immunity 34(2):144-146 (2011)
    Immunoglobulin (Ig) A is critical for protective immune responses at mucosal surfaces. In this issue of Immunity, Tezuka et al. (2011) identify an important relay between stromal cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells that regulates IgA production by murine B cells.
  • Standing Guard at the Mucosa
    - Immunity 34(2):146-148 (2011)
    Most successful vaccines elicit antibodies that protect against infection. In this issue of Immunity, Bomsel et al. (2011) show in the rhesus macaque model that vaccine-induced mucosal antibodies, rather than circulating neutralizing antibodies, may be critical components for protective immunity against HIV-1.
  • Functional Specialization of Interleukin-17 Family Members
    - Immunity 34(2):149-162 (2011)
    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the signature cytokine of the recently identified T helper 17 (Th17) cell subset. IL-17 has six family members (IL-17A to IL-17F). Although IL-17A and IL-17F share the highest amino acid sequence homology, they perform distinct functions; IL-17A is involved in the development of autoimmunity, inflammation, and tumors, and also plays important roles in the host defenses against bacterial and fungal infections, whereas IL-17F is mainly involved in mucosal host defense mechanisms. IL-17E (IL-25) is an amplifier of Th2 immune responses. The functions of IL-17B, IL-17C, and IL-17D remain largely elusive. In this review, we describe the identified functions of each IL-17 family member and discuss the potential of these molecules as therapeutic targets.
  • Coupling of V(D)J Recombination to the Cell Cycle Suppresses Genomic Instability and Lymphoid Tumorigenesis
    - Immunity 34(2):163-174 (2011)
    V(D)J gene segment recombination is linked to the cell cycle by the periodic phosphorylation and destruction of the RAG-2 protein at the G1-to-S cell cycle transition. To examine the function of this coupling, we constructed mice in which the phosphorylation site at threonine 490 of RAG-2 was mutated to alanine. The RAG-2(T490A) mutation uncoupled DNA cleavage from cell cycle and promoted aberrant recombination. Similar aberrant recombination products were observed in mice deficient in the Skp2 ubiquitin ligase subunit, which is required for periodic destruction of RAG-2. On a p53-deficient background, the RAG-2(T490A) mutation induced lymphoid malignancies characterized by clonal chromosomal translocations involving antigen receptor genes. Taken together, these observations provide a direct link between the periodic destruction of RAG-2 and lymphoid tumorigenesis. We infer that cell cycle control of the V(D)J recombinase limits the potential genomic damage that could ! otherwise result from RAG-mediated DNA cleavage.
  • The Distal VH Gene Cluster of the Igh Locus Contains Distinct Regulatory Elements with Pax5 Transcription Factor-Dependent Activity in Pro-B Cells
    - Immunity 34(2):175-187 (2011)
    VH-DJH recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus is temporally and spatially controlled during early B cell development, and yet no regulatory elements other than the VH gene promoters have been identified throughout the entire VH gene cluster. Here, we discovered regulatory sequences that are interspersed in the distal VH gene region. These conserved repeat elements were characterized by the presence of Pax5 transcription factor-dependent active chromatin by binding of the regulators Pax5, E2A, CTCF, and Rad21, as well as by Pax5-dependent antisense transcription in pro-B cells. The Pax5-activated intergenic repeat (PAIR) elements were no longer bound by Pax5 in pre-B and B cells consistent with the loss of antisense transcription, whereas E2A and CTCF interacted with PAIR elements throughout early B cell development. The pro-B cell-specific and Pax5-dependent activity of the PAIR elements suggests that they are involved in the regulation of distal V! H-DJH recombination at the Igh locus.
  • Nuclear Export of the NF-κB Inhibitor IκBα Is Required for Proper B Cell and Secondary Lymphoid Tissue Formation
    - Immunity 34(2):188-200 (2011)
    The N-terminal nuclear export sequence (NES) of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) alpha (IκBα) promotes NF-κB export from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm, but the physiological role of this export regulation remains unknown. Here we report the derivation and analysis of genetically targeted mice harboring a germline mutation in IκBα NES. Mature B cells in the mutant mice displayed nuclear accumulation of inactive IκBα complexes containing a NF-κB family member, cRel, causing their spatial separation from the cytoplasmic IκB kinase. This resulted in severe reductions in constitutive and canonical NF-κB activities, synthesis of p100 and RelB NF-κB members, noncanonical NF-κB activity, NF-κB target gene induction, and proliferation and survival responses in B cells. Consequently, mice displayed defective B cell maturation, antibody production, and formation of secondary lymphoid organs and tissues. Thus, IκBα nuclear export is essential to main! tain constitutive, canonical, and noncanonical NF-κB activation potentials in mature B cells in vivo.
  • The Kinases MEKK2 and MEKK3 Regulate Transforming Growth Factor-β-Mediated Helper T Cell Differentiation
    - Immunity 34(2):201-212 (2011)
    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key mediators of the T cell receptor (TCR) signals but their roles in T helper (Th) cell differentiation are unclear. Here we showed that the MAPK kinase kinases MEKK2 (encoded by Map3k2) and MEKK3 (encoded by Map3k3) negatively regulated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated Th cell differentiation. Map3k2−/−Map3k3Lck-Cre/− mice showed an abnormal accumulation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th17 cells in the periphery, consistent with Map3k2−/−Map3k3Lck-Cre/− naive CD4+ T cells' differentiation into Treg and Th17 cells with a higher frequency than wild-type (WT) cells after TGF-β stimulation in vitro. In addition, Map3k2−/−Map3k3Lck-Cre/− mice developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Map3k2−/−Map3k3Lck-Cre/− T cells exhibited impaired phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 proteins at their linker regions, which negatively regulated the TGF-β responses in T cells. Thus, t! he crosstalk between TCR-induced MAPK and the TGF-β signaling pathways is important in regulating Th cell differentiation.
  • Type I Interferon Inhibits Interleukin-1 Production and Inflammasome Activation
    - Immunity 34(2):213-223 (2011)
    Type I interferon (IFN) is a common therapy for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, yet the mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we showed that type I IFN inhibited interleukin-1 (IL-1) production through two distinct mechanisms. Type I IFN signaling, via the STAT1 transcription factor, repressed the activity of the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes, thereby suppressing caspase-1-dependent IL-1β maturation. In addition, type I IFN induced IL-10 in a STAT1-dependent manner; autocrine IL-10 then signaled via STAT3 to reduce the abundance of pro-IL-1α and pro-IL-1β. In vivo, poly(I:C)-induced type I IFN diminished IL-1β production in response to alum and Candida albicans, thus increasing susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. Importantly, monocytes from multiple sclerosis patients undergoing IFN-β treatment produced substantially less IL-1β than monocytes derived from healthy donors. Our findings may thus explain the effectiveness of type I IFN in the trea! tment of inflammatory diseases but also the observed "weakening" of the immune system after viral infection.
  • Protein Kinase B Controls Transcriptional Programs that Direct Cytotoxic T Cell Fate but Is Dispensable for T Cell Metabolism
    - Immunity 34(2):224-236 (2011)
    In cytotoxic T cells (CTL), Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is activated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2). Akt can control cell metabolism in many cell types but whether this role is important for CTL function has not been determined. Here we have shown that Akt does not mediate IL-2- or TCR-induced cell metabolic responses; rather, this role is assumed by other Akt-related kinases. There is, however, a nonredundant role for sustained and strong activation of Akt in CTL to coordinate the TCR- and IL-2-induced transcriptional programs that control expression of key cytolytic effector molecules, adhesion molecules, and cytokine and chemokine receptors that distinguish effector versus memory and naive T cells. Akt is thus dispensable for metabolism, but the strength and duration of Akt activity dictates the CTL transcriptional program and determines CTL fate.
  • Intestinal Tolerance Requires Gut Homing and Expansion of FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells in the Lamina Propria
    - Immunity 34(2):237-246 (2011)
    Tolerance to food antigen manifests in the absence and/or suppression of antigen-specific immune responses locally in the gut but also systemically, a phenomenon known as oral tolerance. Oral tolerance is thought to originate in the gut-draining lymph nodes, which support the generation of FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Here we use several mouse models to show that Treg cells, after their generation in lymph nodes, need to home to the gut to undergo local expansion to install oral tolerance. Proliferation of Treg cells in the intestine and production of interleukin-10 by gut-resident macrophages was blunted in mice deficient in the chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1). We propose a model of stepwise oral tolerance induction comprising the generation of Treg cells in the gut-draining lymph nodes, followed by migration into the gut and subsequent expansion of Treg cells driven by intestinal macrophages.
  • Prominent Role for Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Mucosal T Cell-Independent IgA Induction
    - Immunity 34(2):247-257 (2011)
    Although both conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), the roles of pDCs in the gut remain largely unknown. Here we show a critical role for pDCs in T cell-independent (TI) IgA production by B cells in the GALT. When pDCs of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches (PPs) (which are representative GALT) were cultured with naive B cells to induce TI IgA class switch recombination (CSR), IgA production was substantially higher than in cocultures of these cells with cDCs. IgA production was dependent on APRIL and BAFF production by pDCs. Importantly, pDC expression of APRIL and BAFF was dependent on stromal cell-derived type I IFN signaling under steady-state conditions. Our findings provide insight into the molecular basis of pDC conditioning to induce mucosal TI IgA production, which may lead to improvements in vaccination strategies and treatment for mucosal-relate! d disorders.
  • Mast Cells Increase Vascular Permeability by Heparin-Initiated Bradykinin Formation In Vivo
    - Immunity 34(2):258-268 (2011)
    Activated mast cells trigger edema in allergic and inflammatory disease. We report a paracrine mechanism by which mast cell-released heparin increases vascular permeability in vivo. Heparin activated the protease factor XII, which initiates bradykinin formation in plasma. Targeting factor XII or kinin B2 receptors abolished heparin-triggered leukocyte-endothelium adhesion and interfered with a mast cell-driven drop in blood pressure in rodents. Intravital laser scanning microscopy and tracer measurements showed heparin-driven fluid extravasation in mouse skin microvessels. Ablation of factor XII or kinin B2 receptors abolished heparin-induced skin edema and protected mice from allergen-activated mast cell-driven leakage. In contrast, heparin and activated mast cells induced excessive edema in mice deficient in the major inhibitor of factor XII, C1 esterase inhibitor. Allergen exposure triggered edema attacks in hereditary angioedema patients, lacking C1 esterase inhibi! tor. The data indicate that heparin-initiated bradykinin formation plays a fundamental role in mast cell-mediated diseases.
  • Immunization with HIV-1 gp41 Subunit Virosomes Induces Mucosal Antibodies Protecting Nonhuman Primates against Vaginal SHIV Challenges
    - Immunity 34(2):269-280 (2011)
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is mainly transmitted mucosally during sexual intercourse. We therefore evaluated the protective efficacy of a vaccine active at mucosal sites. Macaca mulatta monkeys were immunized via both the intramuscular and intranasal routes with an HIV-1 vaccine made of gp41-subunit antigens grafted on virosomes, a safe delivery carrier approved in humans with self-adjuvant properties. Six months after 13 vaginal challenges with simian-HIV (SHIV)-SF162P3, four out of five vaccinated animals remained virus-negative, and the fifth was only transiently infected. None of the five animals seroconverted to p27gag-SIV. In contrast, all 6 placebo-vaccinated animals became infected and seroconverted. All protected animals showed gp41-specific vaginal IgAs with HIV-1 transcytosis-blocking properties and vaginal IgGs with neutralizing and/or antibody-dependent cellular-cytotoxicity activities. In contrast, plasma IgGs totally lacked virus-neutralizing a! ctivity. The protection observed challenges the paradigm whereby circulating antiviral antibodies are required for protection against HIV-1 infection and may serve in designing a human vaccine against HIV-1-AIDS.

No comments: