Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Hot off the presses! Dec 14 dev cell

The Dec 14 issue of the dev cell is now up on Pubget (About dev cell): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • MicroRNAs in a Cardiac Loop: Progenitor or Myocyte?
    - dev cell 19(6):787-788 (2010)
    Like transcription factors, microRNAs are emerging as regulators of cell fate decisions. In this issue, Wang et al. (2010) identify a critical microRNA pathway under the control of Bmp signaling that promotes outflow tract myocardial differentiation from cardiac progenitors in vivo.
  • Ca2+ Transfer from the ER to Mitochondria: Channeling Cell Death by a Tumor Suppressor
    - dev cell 19(6):789-790 (2010)
    The mitochondrial gateway to cell death is a frequent target for tumor suppressors, which largely utilize Bcl-2-dependent apoptotic pathways. Reporting in Science, Giorgi et al. (2010) now show that PML exerts its tumor suppressor function via a distinct mechanism: Ca2+ transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria.
  • Another Tier for Caspase Regulation: IAPs as NEDD8 E3 Ligases
    - dev cell 19(6):791-792 (2010)
    Many inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) function as E3 ligases to ubiquitinate important cell death proteins, including caspases. Broemer et al. (2010) report recently in Molecular Cell that IAPs can also inhibit caspases by promoting conjugation of the UBL NEDD8.
  • Primary Cilia Bend LKB1 and mTOR to Their Will
    - dev cell 19(6):792-794 (2010)
    Primary cilia are cell surface organelles that act as sensory antennae for various input signals. In a recent issue of Nature Cell Biology, Boehlke et al. (2010) demonstrate that bending of cilia regulates cell size through a signaling pathway involving the LKB1 and mTOR kinases.
  • "TORCing" Neutrophil Chemotaxis
    - dev cell 19(6):795-796 (2010)
    During cell migration, chemoattractant-induced signaling pathways determine the direction of movement by controlling the spatiotemporal dynamics of cytoskeletal components. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Liu et al. report that the target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) controls cell polarity and chemotaxis through regulation of both F-actin and myosin II in migrating neutrophils.
  • Mechanisms of Centrosome Separation and Bipolar Spindle Assembly
    - dev cell 19(6):797-806 (2010)
    Accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division is accomplished through the assembly of a bipolar microtubule-based structure called the mitotic spindle. Work over the past two decades has identified a core regulator of spindle bipolarity, the microtubule motor protein kinesin-5. However, an increasing body of evidence has emerged demonstrating that kinesin-5-independent mechanisms driving bipolar spindle assembly exist as well. Here, we discuss different pathways that promote initial centrosome separation and bipolar spindle assembly.
  • Hdac1 and Hdac2 Act Redundantly to Control p63 and p53 Functions in Epidermal Progenitor Cells
    - dev cell 19(6):807-818 (2010)
    Epidermal and hair follicle development from surface ectodermal progenitor cells requires coordinated changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases alter gene expression programs through modification of chromatin and transcription factors. We find that deletion of ectodermal Hdac1 and Hdac2 results in dramatic failure of hair follicle specification and epidermal proliferation and stratification, phenocopying loss of the key ectodermal transcription factor p63. Although expression of p63 and its positively regulated basal cell targets is maintained in Hdac1/2-deficient ectoderm, targets of p63-mediated repression, including p21, 14-3-3σ, and p16/INK4a, are ectopically expressed, and HDACs bind and are active at their promoter regions in normal undifferentiated keratinocytes. Mutant embryos display increased levels of acetylated p53, which opposes p63 functions, and p53 is required for HDAC inhibitor-mediated p21 expression in keratinocytes. Our data identify critica! l requirements for HDAC1/2 in epidermal development and indicate that HDAC1/2 directly mediate repressive functions of p63 and suppress p53 activity.
  • Functional Analysis of CTCF During Mammalian Limb Development
    - dev cell 19(6):819-830 (2010)
    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a nuclear zinc-finger protein that displays insulating activity in a variety of biological assays. For example, CTCF-binding sites have been suggested to isolate Hox gene clusters from neighboring transcriptional interference. We investigated this issue during limb development, where Hoxd genes must remain isolated from long-range effects to allow essential regulation within independent sub-groups. We used conditional Ctcf inactivation in incipient forelimbs and show that the overall pattern of Hoxd gene expression remains unchanged. Transcriptome analysis using tiling arrays covering chromosomes 2 and X confirmed the weak effect of CTCF depletion on global gene regulation. However, Ctcf deletion caused massive apoptosis, leading to a nearly complete loss of limb structure at a later stage. We conclude that, at least in this physiological context, rather than being an insulator, CTCF is required for cell survival via the direct transcript! ional regulation of target genes critical for cellular homeostasis.
  • The Crumbs Complex Couples Cell Density Sensing to Hippo-Dependent Control of the TGF-β-SMAD Pathway
    - dev cell 19(6):831-844 (2010)
    The Hippo pathway senses cell density information to control tissue growth by regulating the localization of the transcriptional regulators TAZ and YAP (TAZ/YAP). TAZ/YAP also regulate TGF-β-SMAD signaling, but whether this role is linked to cell density sensing is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TAZ/YAP dictate the localization of active SMAD complexes in response to cell density-mediated formation of polarity complexes. In high-density cell cultures, the Hippo pathway drives cytoplasmic localization of TAZ/YAP, which sequesters SMAD complexes, thereby suppressing TGF-β signaling. We show that during mouse embryogenesis, this is reflected by differences in TAZ/YAP localization, which define regions of active SMAD2/3 complexes. Interfering with TAZ/YAP phosphorylation drives nuclear accumulation of TAZ/YAP and SMAD2/3. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Crumbs polarity complex interacts with TAZ/YAP, which relays cell density information by promoting TAZ/YAP phos! phorylation, cytoplasmic retention, and suppressed TGF-β signaling. Accordingly, disruption of the Crumbs complex enhances TGF-β signaling and predisposes cells to TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions.
  • mTORC2 Regulates Neutrophil Chemotaxis in a cAMP- and RhoA-Dependent Fashion
    - dev cell 19(6):845-857 (2010)
    We studied the role of the target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) during neutrophil chemotaxis, a process that is mediated through the polarization of actin and myosin filament networks. We show that inhibition of mTORC2 activity, achieved via knock down (KD) of Rictor, severely inhibits neutrophil polarization and directed migration induced by chemoattractants, independently of Akt. Rictor KD also abolishes the ability of chemoattractants to induce cAMP production, a process mediated through the activation of the adenylyl cyclase 9 (AC9). Cells with either reduced or higher AC9 levels also exhibit specific and severe tail retraction defects that are mediated through RhoA. We further show that cAMP is excluded from extending pseudopods and remains restricted to the cell body of migrating neutrophils. We propose that the mTORC2-dependent regulation of MyoII occurs through a cAMP/RhoA-signaling axis, independently of actin reorganization during neutrophil chemotaxis.
  • Insulin/FOXO Signaling Regulates Ovarian Prostaglandins Critical for Reproduction
    - dev cell 19(6):858-871 (2010)
    Abnormalities in insulin/IGF-1 signaling are associated with infertility, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we use liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to show that the C. elegans insulin/FOXO pathway regulates the metabolism of locally acting lipid hormones called prostaglandins. C. elegans prostaglandins are synthesized without prostaglandin G/H synthase homologs, the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Our results support the model that insulin signaling promotes the conversion of oocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into F-series prostaglandins that guide sperm to the fertilization site. Reduction in insulin signaling activates DAF-16/FOXO, which represses the transcription of germline and intestinal genes required to deliver PUFAs to oocytes in lipoprotein complexes. Nutritional and neuroendocrine cues target this mechanism to control prostaglandin metabolism and reproductive output! . Prostaglandins may be conserved sperm guidance factors and widespread downstream effectors of insulin actions that influence both reproductive and nonreproductive processes.
  • Integration of Light- and Brassinosteroid-Signaling Pathways by a GATA Transcription Factor in Arabidopsis
    - dev cell 19(6):872-883 (2010)
    Light and brassinosteroid (BR) antagonistically regulate the developmental switch from etiolation in the dark to photomorphogenesis in the light in plants. Here, we identify GATA2 as a key transcriptional regulator that mediates the crosstalk between BR- and light-signaling pathways. Overexpression of GATA2 causes constitutive photomorphogenesis in the dark, whereas suppression of GATA2 reduces photomorphogenesis caused by light, BR deficiency, or the constitutive photomorphogenesis mutant cop1. Genome profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that GATA2 directly regulates genes that respond to both light and BR. BR represses GATA2 transcription through the BR-activated transcription factor BZR1, whereas light causes accumulation of GATA2 protein and feedback inhibition of GATA2 transcription. Dark-induced proteasomal degradation of GATA2 is dependent on the COP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, and COP1 can ubiquitinate GATA2 in vitro. This study illustrates a ! molecular framework for antagonistic regulation of gene expression and seedling photomorphogenesis by BR and light.
  • DELLAs Modulate Jasmonate Signaling via Competitive Binding to JAZs
    - dev cell 19(6):884-894 (2010)
    Gibberellins (GAs) modulate jasmonate (JA) signaling, which is essential for stress response and development in plants. However, the molecular details of such phytohormone interaction remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the JA ZIM-domain 1 (JAZ1) protein, a key repressor of JA signaling, interacts in vivo with DELLA proteins, repressors of the GA pathway. DELLAs prevent inhibitory JAZ1 interaction with a key transcriptional activator of JA responses, MYC2, and, thus, enhance the ability of MYC2 to regulate its target genes. Conversely, GA triggers degradation of DELLAs, which allows JAZ1 to bind MYC2 and suppress MYC2-dependent JA-signaling outputs. Therefore, our results reveal one means by which GAs suppress cellular competence to respond to JA. Because DELLAs serve as central regulators that mediate the crosstalk of various phytohormones, our model also suggests a candidate mechanism by which JA signaling may be fine-tuned by other signaling pathways through ! DELLAs.
  • Steroid Hormone Inactivation Is Required during the Juvenile-Adult Transition in Drosophila
    - dev cell 19(6):895-902 (2010)
    Steroid hormones are systemic signaling molecules that regulate juvenile-adult transitions in both insects and mammals. In insects, pulses of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) are generated by increased biosynthesis followed by inactivation/clearance. Although mechanisms that control 20E synthesis have received considerable recent attention, the physiological significance of 20E inactivation remains largely unknown. We show that the cytochrome P450 Cyp18a1 lowers 20E titer during the Drosophila prepupal to pupal transition. Furthermore, this reduction of 20E levels is a prerequisite to induce βFTZ-F1, a key factor in the genetic hierarchy that controls early metamorphosis. Resupplying βFTZ-F1 rescues Cyp18a1-deficient prepupae. Because Cyp18a1 is 20E-inducible, it appears that the increased production of steroid is responsible for its eventual decline, thereby generating the regulatory pulse required for proper temporal progression of metamorphosis. The co! upling of hormone clearance to βFTZ-F1 expression suggests a general mechanism by which transient signaling drives unidirectional progression through a multistep process.
  • Bmp Signaling Regulates Myocardial Differentiation from Cardiac Progenitors Through a MicroRNA-Mediated Mechanism
    - dev cell 19(6):903-912 (2010)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. We investigated the hypothesis that bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling regulates miRNAs in cardiac progenitor cells. Bmp2 and Bmp4 regulate OFT myocardial differentiation via regulation of the miRNA-17-92 cluster. In Bmp mutant embryos, myocardial differentiation was delayed, and multiple miRNAs encoded by miRNA-17-92 were reduced. We uncovered functional miRNA-17-92 seed sequences within the 3′ UTR of cardiac progenitor genes such as Isl1 and Tbx1. In both Bmp and miRNA-17-92 mutant embryos, Isl1 and Tbx1 expression failed to be correctly downregulated. Transfection experiments indicated that miRNA-17 and miRNA-20a directly repressed Isl1 and Tbx1. Genetic interaction studies uncovered a synergistic interaction between miRNA-17-92 cluster and Bmp4, providing direct in vivo evidence for the Bmp-miRNA-17-92 regulatory pathway. Our findings indicate that Bmp signal! ing directly regulates a miRNA-mediated effector mechanism that downregulates cardiac progenitor genes and enhances myocardial differentiation.
  • DSas-6 and Ana2 Coassemble into Tubules to Promote Centriole Duplication and Engagement
    - dev cell 19(6):913-919 (2010)
    Centrioles form cilia and centrosomes, organelles whose dysfunction is increasingly linked to human disease. Centriole duplication relies on a few conserved proteins (ZYG-1/Sak/Plk4, SAS-6, SAS-5/Ana2, and SAS-4), and is often initiated by the formation of an inner "cartwheel" structure. Here, we show that overexpressed Drosophila Sas-6 and Ana2 coassemble into extended tubules (SAStubules) that bear a striking structural resemblance to the inner cartwheel of the centriole. SAStubules specifically interact with centriole proximal ends, but extra DSas-6/Ana2 is only recruited onto centrioles when Sak/Plk4 kinase is also overexpressed. This extra centriolar DSas-6/Ana2 induces centriole overduplication and, surprisingly, increased centriole cohesion. Intriguingly, we observe tubules that are structurally similar to SAStubules linking the engaged centrioles in normal wild-type cells. We conclude that DSas-6 and Ana2 normally cooperate to drive the formation of the cen! triole inner cartwheel and that they promote both centriole duplication and centriole cohesion in a Sak/Plk4-dependent manner.

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