Friday, October 15, 2010

Hot off the presses! Nov 01 Nat Rev Micro

The Nov 01 issue of the Nat Rev Micro is now up on Pubget (About Nat Rev Micro): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):753 (2010)

  • - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):755 (2010)
  • Bacterial physiology: Bacterial lipid rafts discovered | PDF (229 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):756 (2010)
    In eukaryotic cells, membrane proteins involved in signal transduction are often localized into microdomains that are enriched in particular lipid species. Commonly referred to as lipid rafts, these microdomains are important for cellular function, and their disruption can cause defects in signal transduction processes.
  • Virology: Severing the bud | PDF (290 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):757 (2010)
    Although many viruses use the host endosomal complex required for transport (ESCRT) to mediate budding and scission, influenza is thought to use an ESCRT-independent mechanism that was not clear. Lamb and colleagues now reveal that influenza budding and scission depends on the ion channel protein matrix 2 (M2).
  • Parasitology: Theileria survival and the spindle | PDF (173 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):757 (2010)
    A new paper in PLoS Biology reports how the apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata usurps the host cell mitotic apparatus to ensure parasite survival and persistence.Theileria spp.
  • Virology: Greasing the wheels of replication | PDF (201 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):758 (2010)
    During their replication, positive-strand RNA viruses remodel host cell membranes to increase the local concentration of viral components and to hide themselves from the host's immune surveillance systems. Dengue virus (DENV) forms replication complexes consisting of double-membraned vesicles that are contiguous with the host's endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
  • Bacterial virulence: Gaining an edge in the gut | PDF (154 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):758 (2010)
    Two articles, published in Nature and Environmental Microbiology, highlight the use of specific compounds in the intestine by two different pathogens to outcompete the native flora.Salmonella enterica subsp.
  • Symbiosis: A helping hand | PDF (145 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):758 (2010)
    A new paper in the ISME Journal provides the first evidence for a role of a bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) in an interaction between a bacterium and a fungus.Bacterial symbionts have been found in a range of different hosts and confer many different metabolic benefits.
  • Plant disease resistance | Bacterial physiology | Genomics | PDF (162 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):759 (2010)
    Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease Fones, al. PLoS Pathog., e1001093 (2010)
  • Genome annotation: man versus machine | PDF (204 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):762 (2010)
    Following on from last month's discussion of sequence assembly and correction, this month's Genome Watch examines genome annotation in the context of advances in second-generation sequencing.
  • In the news | PDF (273 KB)
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):763 (2010)
    Human malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, originated in gorillas and not in chimpanzees, as originally thought. A recent study examined faecal samples from chimpanzees, bonobos and eastern and western gorillas from sub-Saharan Africa to screen for parasite infection.
  • Protein glycosylation in bacteria: sweeter than ever
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):765 (2010)
    Investigations into bacterial protein glycosylation continue to progress rapidly. It is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways that display many commonalities with their eukaryotic and archaeal counterparts as well as some unexpected variations. In bacteria, protein glycosylation is not restricted to pathogens but also exists in commensal organisms such as certain Bacteroides species, and both the N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins. Improving our understanding of the intricacies of bacterial protein glycosylation systems should lead to new opportunities to manipulate these pathways in order to engineer glycoproteins with potential value as novel vaccines.
  • Microorganisms and climate change: terrestrial feedbacks and mitigation options
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):779 (2010)
    Microbial processes have a central role in the global fluxes of the key biogenic greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. Whether changes in microbial processes lead to a net positive or negative feedback for greenhouse gas emissions is unclear. To improve the prediction of climate models, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which microorganisms regulate terrestrial greenhouse gas flux. This involves consideration of the complex interactions that occur between microorganisms and other biotic and abiotic factors. The potential to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions through managing terrestrial microbial processes is a tantalizing prospect for the future.
  • Organotypic 3D cell culture models: using the rotating wall vessel to study host–pathogen interactions
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):791 (2010)
    Appropriately simulating the three-dimensional (3D) environment in which tissues normally develop and function is crucial for engineering in vitro models that can be used for the meaningful dissection of host–pathogen interactions. This Review highlights how the rotating wall vessel bioreactor has been used to establish 3D hierarchical models that range in complexity from a single cell type to multicellular co-culture models that recapitulate the 3D architecture of tissues observed in vivo. The application of these models to the study of infectious diseases is discussed.
  • Identifying genetic markers of adaptation for surveillance of viral host jumps
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):802 (2010)
    Adaptation is often thought to affect the likelihood that a virus will be able to successfully emerge in a new host species. If so, surveillance for genetic markers of adaptation could help to predict the risk of disease emergence. However, adaptation is difficult to distinguish conclusively from the other processes that generate genetic change. In this Review we survey the research on the host jumps of influenza A, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, canine parvovirus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus to illustrate the insights that can arise from combining genetic surveillance with microbiological experimentation in the context of epidemiological data. We argue that using a multidisciplinary approach for surveillance will provide a better understanding of when adaptations are required for host jumps and thus when predictive genetic markers may be present.
  • Developing vaccines to combat hookworm infection and intestinal schistosomiasis
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):814 (2010)
    Hookworm infection and schistosomiasis rank among the most important health problems in developing countries. Both cause anaemia and malnutrition, and schistosomiasis also results in substantial intestinal, liver and genitourinary pathology. In sub-Saharan Africa and Brazil, co-infections with the hookworm, Necator americanus, and the intestinal schistosome, Schistosoma mansoni, are common. The development of vaccines for these infections could substantially reduce the global disability associated with these helminthiases. New genomic, proteomic, immunological and X-ray crystallographic data have led to the discovery of several promising candidate vaccine antigens. Here, we describe recent progress in this field and the rationale for vaccine development.
  • Nanobead-based interventions for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis
    - Nat Rev Micro 8(11):827 (2010)
    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most devastating bacterial diseases to affect humans. M. tuberculosis is a robust pathogen that has evolved the capacity to survive and grow inside macrophage phagosomes. A cocktail of antibiotics has long been successfully used against M. tuberculosis but is becoming less effective owing to the emergence of multidrug resistance. The only available preventive vaccine, using Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Gu in, is considered to be ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, the most prevalent form of the disease. Here, we review the potential use of biodegradable nanoparticle-based anti-TB drug delivery systems that have been shown to be more effective against M. tuberculosis in animal models than conventional antibiotic treatment regimens. This technology also has substantial potential for vaccination and other therapeutic strategies against TB and other infectious diseases.

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