Saturday, September 24, 2011

Hot off the presses! Oct 01 Nat Rev Immunol

The Oct 01 issue of the Nat Rev Immunol is now up on Pubget (About Nat Rev Immunol): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):633 (2011)

  • - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):635 (2011)

  • - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):636 (2011)
  • Immunotherapy: Leukadherins get a grip on inflammation | PDF (252 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):638 (2011)
    Integrins have essential roles in promoting immune cell recruitment to inflamed tissues and have attracted much interest as potential therapeutic targets. However, the integrin-blocking drugs that are currently available have shown limited clinical success, and several of these drugs have been withdrawn from the market owing to undesirable side effects.
  • Phagocytosis: Phagocytes whet their appetite | PDF (235 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):639 (2011)
    The engulfment ability of a phagocyte is controlled by its mitochondrial membrane potential, according to a study by Ravichandran and colleagues.
  • Infection | T cells | Innate immunity | PDF (89 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):639 (2011)
    Inflammatory dendritic cells migrate in and out of transplanted chronic mycobacterial granulomas in mice Schreiber, H. al. J. Clin. Invest.12 Sep 2011 (doi:10.1172/JCI45113)
  • Cytokines: Structuring the type I IFN response | PDF (250 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):640 (2011)
    Type I interferons (IFNs) are potent mediators of the innate immune response against viruses and cancer. There are 16 members of the type I IFN family (IFNβ, IFNÉ›, IFNκ, IFNω and 12 IFNα subtypes), which signal through the same receptor — composed of the subunits IFNAR1 and IFNAR2.
  • Virus-hunter gatherers | PDF (76 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):640 (2011)
    They may have met during an ice age but relations between early humans and their evolutionary cousins were anything but frosty. It seems that humans acquired MHC class I genes by mating with Neanderthals and another ancient people, the Denisovans.
  • Tumour immunology: Neutrophils fight back in the final round | PDF (255 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):640 (2011)
    The end stage of cancer progression is the dissemination of primary tumour cells to distant sites, and the formation of such metastatic tumours is the main cause of cancer-related mortality. Many studies have focused on the immunosuppressive effects of primary tumours and the mechanisms by which they can 'condition' distant tissues to be more receptive to migrating tumour cells.
  • Viral immunity | Vaccines | Signalling | PDF (92 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):641 (2011)
    Endothelial cells are central orchestrators of cytokine amplification during influenza virus infection Teijaro, J. al. Cell 146, 980–991 (2011)
  • B cells: WASP stings autoreactive B cells | PDF (1,722 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):642 (2011)
    Patients with Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) — who carry a mutation in the gene encoding the WAS protein (WASP) — are immunodeficient and have a high risk of developing autoimmunity. WASP is expressed by immune cells, including B and T cells, and is a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton.
  • Natural killer T cells: Worth holding on to | PDF (209 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):642 (2011)
    Most natural killer T (NKT) cells express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and are collectively known as invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. The invariant TCRs of mammalian iNKT cells recognize a highly conserved set of antigens (including self antigens and bacterial glycolipids) that are presented on MHC class I-like CD1d molecules.
  • Allergy: Peaceful death ends pain | PDF (371 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):643 (2011)
    Repeated exposure to low doses of a contact allergen is known to prevent allergic sensitization to that particular allergen. This process has been termed 'low-zone tolerance' and, although previous experiments have described a role for suppressor CD8+ T cells in this process, the exact mechanisms that drive low-zone tolerance have been unclear.
  • Trafficking: Tracking immune cells on the lymph node map | PDF (342 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):644 (2011)
    Dendritic cells (DCs) scan peripheral tissues and transfer antigens to local lymph nodes through the lymphatic system, whereas T cells use the lymph to travel between lymph nodes. A recent study by Braun et al.
  • Inflammasome: NAIPs: pathogen-sensing proteins | PDF (153 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):644 (2011)
    Since they were first described less than 10 years ago, inflammasomes have become central to the working model of how the innate immune system senses and responds to pathogens and tissue injury. However, it remains unclear how individual inflammasomes are activated by specific stimuli.
  • NK cell development, homeostasis and function: parallels with CD8+ T cells
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):645 (2011)
    Natural killer (NK) cells survey host tissues for signs of infection, transformation or stress and, true to their name, kill target cells that have become useless or are detrimental to the host. For decades, NK cells have been classified as a component of the innate immune system. However, accumulating evidence in mice and humans suggests that, like the B and T cells of the adaptive immune system, NK cells are educated during development, possess antigen-specific receptors, undergo clonal expansion during infection and generate long-lived memory cells. In this Review, we highlight the many stages that an NK cell progresses through during its remarkable lifetime, discussing similarities and differences with its close relative, the cytotoxic CD8+ T cell.
  • Organ-specific features of natural killer cells
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):658 (2011)
    Natural killer (NK) cells can be swiftly mobilized by danger signals and are among the earliest arrivals at target organs of disease. However, the role of NK cells in mounting inflammatory responses is often complex and sometimes paradoxical. Here, we examine the divergent phenotypic and functional features of NK cells, as deduced largely from experimental mouse models of pathophysiological responses in the liver, mucosal tissues, uterus, pancreas, joints and brain. Moreover, we discuss how organ-specific factors, the local microenvironment and unique cellular interactions may influence the organ-specific properties of NK cells.
  • New insights into the T cell synapse from single molecule techniques
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):672 (2011)
    T cell activation depends on extracellular ligation of the T cell receptor (TCR) by peptide–MHC complexes in a synapse between the T cell and an antigen-presenting cell. The process then requires the assembly of signalling complexes between the TCR and the adaptor protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT), and subsequent filamentous actin (F-actin)-dependent TCR cluster formation. Recent progress in each of these areas, made possible by the emergence of new techniques, has forced us to rethink our assumptions and consider some radical new models. These describe the receptor interaction parameters that control T cell responses and the mechanism by which LAT is recruited to the TCR signalling machinery. This is an exciting time in T cell biology, and further innovation in imaging and genomics is likely to lead to a greater understanding of how T cells are activated.
  • Inflammatory modulation of HSCs: viewing the HSC as a foundation for the immune response
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):685 (2011)
    Cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are the progeny of a variety of haematopoietic precursors, the most primitive of which is the haematopoietic stem cell. Haematopoietic stem cells have been thought of generally as dormant cells that are only called upon to divide under extreme conditions, such as bone marrow ablation through radiation or chemotherapy. However, recent studies suggest that haematopoietic stem cells respond directly and immediately to infections and inflammatory signals. In this Review, we summarize the current literature regarding the effects of infection on haematopoietic stem cell function and how these effects may have a pivotal role in directing the immune response from the bone marrow.
  • Highlights of 10 years of immunology in Nature Reviews Immunology
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):693 (2011)
    As Nature Reviews Immunology reaches its 10th anniversary, the authors of one of the top-cited articles from each year take a trip down memory lane. We've asked them to look back on the state of research at the time their Review was published, to consider why the article has had the impact it has and to discuss the future directions of their field. This Viewpoint article provides an interesting snapshot of some of the fundamental advances in immunology over the past 10 years. Highlights include our improved understanding of Toll-like receptor signalling, and of immune regulation mediated by regulatory T cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and interleukin-10. The complexities in the development and heterogeneity of macrophages, dendritic cells and T helper cells continue to engage immunologists, as do the immune processes involved in diseases such as atherosclerosis. We look forward to what the next 10 years of immunology research may br! ing.
  • The parallel lives of angiogenesis and immunosuppression: cancer and other tales
    - Nat Rev Immunol 11(10):702 (2011)
    Emerging evidence indicates that angiogenesis and immunosuppression frequently occur simultaneously in response to diverse stimuli. Here, we describe a fundamental biological programme that involves the activation of both angiogenesis and immunosuppressive responses, often through the same cell types or soluble factors. We suggest that the initiation of these responses is part of a physiological and homeostatic tissue repair programme, which can be co-opted in pathological states, notably by tumours. This view can help to devise new cancer therapies and may have implications for aseptic tissue injury, pathogen-mediated tissue destruction, chronic inflammation and even reproduction.

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