Thursday, November 25, 2010

Hot off the presses! Dec 01 Nat Rev Immunol

The Dec 01 issue of the Nat Rev Immunol is now up on Pubget (About Nat Rev Immunol): if you're at a subscribing institution, just click the link in the latest link at the home page. (Note you'll only be able to get all the PDFs in the issue if your institution subscribes to Pubget.)

Latest Articles Include:

  • - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):805 (2010)
  • Innate immunity: Neutrophil recruitment on the big screen | PDF (202 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):807 (2010)
    In a recent study published in Science, Paul Kubes and colleagues describe a multistep cascade that guides neutrophils through the circulation to sites of sterile inflammation in vivo.Tissue injury in the absence of infection (sterile inflammation) results in the recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the tissue site, where they contribute to wound healing but may also cause tissue damage if not controlled.
  • Dendritic cells: Prime time for monocytes | PDF (232 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):808 (2010)
    Dendritic cells (DCs) have crucial roles in shaping adaptive immune responses, and understanding their origins is a key goal for immunologists. In the steady state, DCs develop from precursor cells that are related to, but distinct from, blood monocytes.
  • Macrophages: Microglial cell origins | PDF (200 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):808 (2010)
    There is much debate as to the origin of microglial cells (the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS)). It has been proposed that haematopoietic progenitor cells are recruited from the blood and differentiate in the CNS in waves during the embryonic and perinatal stages of development (a process termed definitive haematopoiesis).
  • Antibodies | T cell responses | Innate immunity | PDF (160 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):808 (2010)
    Antibodies protect against intracellular bacteria by Fc receptor-mediated lysosomal targeting Joller, al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA3 Nov 2010 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1013827107)
  • Macrophages: Lipids and stress — a deadly duo | PDF (204 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):809 (2010)
    Acute atherothrombotic vascular disease (the leading cause of death in the industrialized world) is associated with the conversion of small, clinically silent atherosclerotic lesions into necrotic plaques that are prone to rupture. A new study in Cell Metabolism provides a missing link in this conversion, showing that a combination of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and atherogenic lipids or lipoproteins triggers the macrophage apoptosis and plaque necrosis that are necessary for clinical disease.
  • Neonatal immunity: (micro)Tolerance in the gut | PDF (212 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):810 (2010)
    It is not known how the neonatal intestinal mucosa tolerates the transition from an environment that is sterile in utero to one that is highly colonized with microorganisms following birth. Chassin et al.
  • Asthma and allergy: A breathtaking chemokine | PDF (178 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):810 (2010)
    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that is thought to be driven by T helper 2 (TH2) cells, but our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for T cell recruitment and activation in the allergic lung remains limited. A new study in Nature Medicine now shows that CX3C-chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) and its ligand, CX3C-chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1), exacerbate allergic airway disease by promoting the survival of effector T cells in the inflamed lung.
  • Natural Killer cells: Making memories | PDF (252 KB)
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):811 (2010)
    The ability to generate antigen-specific memory responses is classically regarded as a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. However, recent evidence suggests that natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system can also be long-lived and generate enhanced responses on secondary encounter with antigen.
  • The stromal and haematopoietic antigen-presenting cells that reside in secondary lymphoid organs
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):813 (2010)
    T cells encounter their cognate antigens in specialized compartments of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). There, dendritic cells (DCs) present self and non-self antigens to T cells, and promote immunity or tolerance depending on the availability of danger signals. Resident stromal cells orchestrate the interaction between T cells and DCs by recruiting them to T cell zones and guiding their migration within SLOs. Recent studies have shown that SLO-resident stromal cells also have a crucial role in tolerance induction in the periphery. In this Review, we discuss the roles of SLO-resident DCs and stromal cells in shaping T cell responses.
  • Sterile inflammation: sensing and reacting to damage
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):826 (2010)
    Over the past several decades, much has been revealed about the nature of the host innate immune response to microorganisms, with the identification of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are the conserved microbial motifs sensed by these receptors. It is now apparent that these same PRRs can also be activated by non-microbial signals, many of which are considered as damage-associated molecular patterns. The sterile inflammation that ensues either resolves the initial insult or leads to disease. Here, we review the triggers and receptor pathways that result in sterile inflammation and its impact on human health.
  • Functions of T cells in asthma: more than just TH2 cells
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):838 (2010)
    Asthma has been considered a T helper 2 (TH2) cell-associated inflammatory disease, and TH2-type cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, are thought to drive the disease pathology in patients. Although atopic asthma has a substantial TH2 cell component, the disease is notoriously heterogeneous, and recent evidence has suggested that other T cells also contribute to the development of asthma. Here, we discuss the roles of different T cell subsets in the allergic lung, consider how each subset can contribute to the development of allergic pathology and evaluate how we might manipulate these cells for new asthma therapies.
  • Mechanisms of impaired regulation by CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human autoimmune diseases
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):849 (2010)
    A lack of regulatory T (TReg) cells that express CD4, CD25 and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) results in severe autoimmunity in both mice and humans. Since the discovery of TReg cells, there has been intense investigation aimed at determining how they protect an organism from autoimmunity and whether defects in their number or function contribute to the development of autoimmunity in model systems. The next phase of investigation — that is, to define the role that defects in TReg cells have in human autoimmunity — is now underway. This Review summarizes our progress so far towards understanding the role of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ TReg cells in human autoimmune diseases and the impact that this knowledge might have on the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.
  • Farm living: effects on childhood asthma and allergy
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):861 (2010)
    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that children who grow up on traditional farms are protected from asthma, hay fever and allergic sensitization. Early-life contact with livestock and their fodder, and consumption of unprocessed cow's milk have been identified as the most effective protective exposures. Studies of the immunobiology of farm living point to activation and modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses by intense microbial exposures and possibly xenogeneic signals delivered before or soon after birth.
  • The challenge of immunogenicity in the quest for induced pluripotency
    - Nat Rev Immunol 10(12):868 (2010)
    Few advances have been so widely acclaimed in biology as the seminal demonstration that adult somatic cells can be induced to acquire the phenotype and differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells. The capacity to produce patient-specific stem cells that are truly pluripotent has raised prospects for the treatment of many degenerative diseases through replacement of the affected cell types. In the race to the clinic, however, questions surrounding the potential immunogenicity of such cells have been largely overlooked. Here, I explore the extent of the challenges ahead and suggest that the induction of tolerance to such cells will be crucial to the future success of induced pluripotency.

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